Table 1.

Antibiotic resistance gene-specific and species-specific primers used in this study

Target geneAccession number (GenBank)Primer sequenceAnnealing position
aac(6′)-aph(2")M137715′-TTG GGA AGA TGA AGT TTT TAG A-3′159–180
5′-CCT TTA CTC CAA TAA TTT GGC T-3′311–332
blaZM602535′-ACT TCA ACA CCT GCT GCT TTC-3′511–531
5′-TGA CCA CTT TTA TCA GCA ACC-3′663–683
ermAK029875′-TAT CTT ATC GTT GAG AAG GGA TT-3′370–392
5′-CTA CAC TTG GCT TAG GAT GAA A-3′487–508
ermBU352285′-CTA TCT GAT TGT TGA AGA AGG ATT-3′366–389
5′-GTT TAC TCT TGG TTT AGG ATG AAA-3′484–507
ermCM179905′-CTT GTT GAT CAC GAT AAT TTC C-3′214–235
5′-ATC TTT TAG CAA ACC CGT ATT C-3′382–403
Internal control (16S rRNA gene)J018595′-GGA GGA AGG TGG GGA TGA CG-3′1244–1263
5′-ATG GTG TGA CGG GCG GTG TG-3′1469–1489
mecAX525945′-AAC AGG TGA ATT ATT AGC ACT TGT AAG-3′1059–1085
X525935′-ATT GCT GTT AAT ATT TTT TGA GTT GAA-3′1206–1232
msrAX520855′-TCC AAT CAT TGC ACA AAA TC-3′891–910
5′-AAT TCC CTC TAT TTG GTG GT-3′1034–1053
S. aureusaAF0331915′-AAT CTT TGT CGG TAC ACG ATA TTC TTC ACG-3′5–34
5′-CGT AAT GAG ATT TCA GTA GAT AAT ACA ACA-3′83–112
S. epidermidisaNAb5′-ATC AAA AAG TTG GCG AAC CTT TTC A-3′21–45
5′-CAA AAG AGC GTG GAG AAA AGT ATC A-3′121–145
  • a The S. aureus- and S. epidermidis-specific primer pairs were derived from genomic DNA fragments of unknown coding potential (34, 35).

  • b NA, not applicable.