Table 1.

Comparative in vitro activity of GAR-936 and other tetracycline derivatives, selected macrolides, fluoroquinolones, penicillin, and vancomycin against 416 aerobic and anaerobic animal and human bite wound pathogens

Organism (no. of isolates)AgentMIC (μg/ml)a
Range50%90%
Ef-4b (17)GAR-9360.06–0.1250.060.125
Minocycline0.06–0.1250.1250.125
Doxycycline0.125–0.1250.1250.125
Tetracycline0.06–0.250.1250.125
Levofloxacin≤0.015–0.06≤0.0150.03
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.06≤0.0150.06
Penicillin-G0.03–0.50.250.5
Vancomycin4–>8>8>8
Azithromycin0.03–0.1250.060.125
Erythromycin0.125–10.250.5
E. corrodens (18)GAR-9360.25–40.54
Minocycline0.125–10.251
Doxycycline0.25–20.52
Tetracycline0.25–20.52
Levofloxacin≤0.015–0.03≤0.0150.03
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.1250.030.125
Penicillin-G0.125–212
Vancomycin8–>8>8>8
Azithromycin0.5–828
Erythromycin2–848
Moraxella spp.b(13)GAR-9360.06–0.250.1250.25
Minocycline0.03–0.50.1250.25
Doxycycline0.06–10.51
Tetracycline0.125–0.50.250.5
Levofloxacin≤0.015–0.06≤0.0150.06
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.06≤0.0150.06
Penicillin-G≤0.015–0.50.060.25
Vancomycin8–>8>8>8
Azithromycin0.03–0.50.060.125
Erythromycin0.25–10.51
Neisseria weaverii(11)GAR-9360.03–0.1250.060.125
Minocycline0.06–0.1250.1250.125
Doxycycline0.125–0.1250.1250.125
Tetracycline0.06–0.250.1250.25
Levofloxacin≤0.015–0.03≤0.015≤0.015
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.03≤0.015≤0.015
Penicillin-G0.06–0.250.1250.25
Vancomycin4>88>8
Azithromycin0.06–0.1250.1250.125
Erythromycin0.125–0.50.50.5
P. canis(11)GAR-9360.06–0.060.060.06
Minocycline0.06–0.1250.1250.125
Doxycycline0.125–0.250.1250.25
Tetracycline0.125–0.250.1250.25
Levofloxacin≤0.015–0.03≤0.0150.03
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.03≤0.0150.03
Penicillin-G0.03–0.1250.1250.125
Azithromycin0.25–0.50.50.5
Erythromycin1–222
P. dagmatis (10)GAR-9360.03–0.060.060.06
Minocycline0.06–0.1250.1250.125
Doxycycline0.125–0.250.250.25
Tetracycline0.125–0.50.250.25
Levofloxacin≤0.015–0.03≤0.015≤0.015
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.06≤0.0150.03
Penicillin-G0.03–0.1250.060.125
Azithromycin0.06–0.50.250.5
Erythromycin0.25–212
P. multocida subsp. multocida (15)GAR-9360.06–0.060.060.06
Minocycline0.03–0.1250.060.125
Doxycycline0.125–0.250.250.25
Tetracycline0.125–0.250.250.25
Levofloxacin≤0.015–0.03≤0.0150.03
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.06≤0.0150.06
Penicillin-G0.06–0.250.1250.25
Azithromycin0.06–10.50.5
Erythromycin0.25–222
P. multocida subsp. septica(15)GAR-9360.06–0.060.060.06
Minocycline0.06–0.1250.060.125
Doxycycline0.125–0.250.1250.125
Tetracycline0.125–0.250.250.25
Levofloxacin≤0.015–0.03≤0.015≤0.015
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.03≤0.0150.03
Penicillin-G0.06–0.1250.1250.125
Azithromycin0.5–0.50.50.5
Erythromycin1–222
P. stomatis (11)GAR-9360.03–0.1250.060.125
Minocycline0.03–0.1250.060.125
Doxycycline0.125–0.250.250.25
Tetracycline0.125–0.50.250.5
Levofloxacin≤0.015–≤0.015≤0.015≤0.015
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–≤0.015≤0.015≤0.015
Penicillin-G≤0.015–0.060.060.125
Azithromycin0.125–0.50.250.5
Erythromycin0.5–20.52
Bergeyella zoohelcum(10)GAR-9360.06–0.250.250.25
Minocycline≤0.015–0.1250.1250.125
Doxycycline≤0.015–0.50.1250.25
Tetracycline0.25–10.51
Levofloxacin≤0.015–0.1250.060.06
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.03≤0.015≤0.015
Penicillin-G≤0.015–20.060.25
Vancomycin2–>848
Azithromycin0.25–20.51
Erythromycin0.06–10.250.5
Miscellaneous gram-negative bacteriac(13)GAR-936≤0.015–0.250.060.25
Minocycline≤0.015–0.250.060.125
Doxycycline≤0.015–0.50.1250.5
Tetracycline0.03–0.250.1250.25
Levofloxacin≤0.015–0.25≤0.0150.125
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–.125≤0.0150.06
Penicillin-G≤0.015–40.060.25
Vancomycin≤0.015–>8>8>8
Azithromycin≤0.015–10.251
Erythromycin≤0.015–80.068
Corynebacterium aquaticum(11)GAR-936≤0.015–0.060.060.06
Minocycline0.03–0.1250.030.06
Doxycycline0.125–0.250.1250.125
Tetracycline0.125–444
Levofloxacin0.5–111
Moxifloxacin0.06–0.50.250.25
Penicillin-G0.125–111
Vancomycin0.125–222
Azithromycin0.125–0.250.1250.125
Erythromycin0.03–0.1250.030.06
Corynebacteriumspp.d(21)GAR-936≤0.015–0.250.060.125
Minocycline≤0.015–20.060.125
Doxycycline≤0.015–40.1250.25
Tetracycline0.03–160.1251
Levofloxacin0.03–80.1251
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–10.061
Penicillin-G≤0.015–20.061
Vancomycin0.25–80.250.5
Azithromycin≤0.015–20.060.5
Erythromycin≤0.015–0.250.030.125
Gram-positive non-spore-forming rodse(8)GAR-936≤0.015–0.50.25N/A
Minocycline≤0.015–0.1250.06N/A
Doxycycline0.03–0.250.125N/A
Tetracycline0.03–40.125N/A
Levofloxacin≤0.015–10.25N/A
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.50.125N/A
Penicillin-G≤0.015–1≤0.015N/A
Vancomycin≤0.015–>80.25N/A
Azithromycin≤0.015–40.125N/A
Erythromycin≤0.015–10.06N/A
Enterococcus spp.f(18)GAR-9360.03–0.250.060.125
Minocycline≤0.015–160.0616
Doxycycline0.06–320.2516
Tetracycline0.125–>320.5>32
Levofloxacin0.25–111
Moxifloxacin0.06–0.50.250.25
Penicillin-G≤0.015–20.252
Vancomycin0.125–20.52
Azithromycin0.06–>320.25>32
Erythromycin≤0.015–>1280.06>128
S. aureus(15)GAR-9360.06–0.1250.1250.125
Minocycline0.03–0.060.060.06
Doxycycline0.06–0.060.060.06
Tetracycline0.06–0.1250.1250.125
Levofloxacin0.06–0.1250.1250.125
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.060.030.03
Penicillin-G≤0.015–80.58
Vancomycin0.5–0.50.50.5
Azithromycin0.25–10.51
Erythromycin0.125–10.250.25
Staphylococcus coagulase negativeg(18)GAR-9360.06–20.060.25
Minocycline0.03–10.061
Doxycycline0.03–160.064
Tetracycline0.06–>320.12516
Levofloxacin0.03–0.50.1250.25
Moxifloxacin0.03–0.250.060.06
Penicillin-G≤0.015–20.062
Vancomycin0.125–10.51
Azithromycin0.5–>320.25>32
Erythromycin0.125–>1280.125>128
Streptococcus mitis(10)GAR-936≤0.015–0.060.030.03
Minocycline0.03–20.061
Doxycycline0.06–20.1252
Tetracycline0.06–80.254
Levofloxacin0.5–111
Moxifloxacin0.06–0.1250.1250.125
Penicillin-G≤0.015–0.250.060.25
Vancomycin0.25–0.50.250.5
Azithromycin0.06–0.250.1250.25
Erythromycin0.03–0.060.060.06
Streptococcus spp.h(23)GAR-936≤0.015–0.1250.060.06
Minocycline0.03–160.060.125
Doxycycline0.03–160.060.25
Tetracycline0.06–320.51
Levofloxacin0.5–20.51
Moxifloxacin0.06–0.50.1250.5
Penicillin-G≤0.015–0.1250.060.125
Vancomycin0.125–0.50.250.5
Azithromycin≤0.015–0.50.1250.5
Erythromycin0.125–0.1250.030.125
B. tectum(11)GAR-9360.06–0.50.1250.125
Minocycline0.03–40.060.06
Doxycycline0.06–40.060.125
Tetracycline0.125–160.250.25
Levofloxacin0.125–10.250.25
Moxifloxacin0.03–0.250.060.25
Penicillin-G≤0.015–160.030.06
Vancomycin>8>8>8
Azithromycin0.5–212
Erythromycin0.125–40.50.5
F. nucleatum (14)GAR-936≤0.015–0.250.060.06
Minocycline0.06–0.250.060.25
Doxycycline0.03–0.50.1250.5
Tetracycline0.25–10.51
Levofloxacin1–>8>8>8
Moxifloxacin0.25–>8>8>8
Penicillin-G≤0.015–0.03≤0.0150.03
Vancomycin>8>8>8
Azithromycin0.5–424
Erythromycin8–643264
Fusobacterium spp.i(16)GAR-936≤0.015–0.060.030.06
Minocycline≤0.015–0.1250.060.06
Doxycycline≤0.015–0.1250.060.125
Tetracycline≤0.015–10.250.25
Levofloxacin0.25–>8>8>8
Moxifloxacin0.06–848
Penicillin-G≤0.015–0.50.030.03
Vancomycin1–>8>8>8
Azithromycin≤0.015–0.50.250.25
Erythromycin0.125–444
P. heparinolytica (12)GAR-9360.06–0.250.060.25
Minocycline0.03–80.068
Doxycycline0.06–40.064
Tetracycline0.25–160.2516
Levofloxacin0.5–10.50.5
Moxifloxacin0.125–0.250.250.25
Penicillin-G0.125–0.1250.1250.125
Vancomycin>8>8>8
Azithromycin0.5–111
Erythromycin0.25–0.50.250.5
Prevotella spp.j(19)GAR-9360.06–0.250.1250.25
Minocycline0.03–80.068
Doxycycline0.06–80.1258
Tetracycline0.125–160.2516
Levofloxacin0.125–0.50.250.5
Moxifloxacin0.06–0.50.1250.5
Penicillin-G≤0.015–320.0616
Vancomycin>8>8>8
Azithromycin0.25–20.52
Erythromycin0.125–10.51
P. macaccae (11)GAR-9360.03–0.1250.030.06
Minocycline0.03–80.060.125
Doxycycline0.06–80.1250.125
Tetracycline0.125–80.250.25
Levofloxacin0.06–0.250.250.25
Moxifloxacin0.03–0.1250.060.125
Penicillin-G≤0.015–0.50.50.5
Vancomycin2–>88>8
Azithromycin0.25–10.50.5
Erythromycin0.125–0.250.1250.25
P. gingivalis(11)GAR-936≤0.015–0.060.030.06
Minocycline0.03–0.060.060.06
Doxycycline0.06–0.1250.060.125
Tetracycline0.125–0.250.250.25
Levofloxacin0.125–10.1250.25
Moxifloxacin≤0.015–0.250.060.06
Penicillin-G≤0.015–≤0.015≤0.015≤0.015
Vancomycin1–444
Azithromycin0.125–10.250.5
Erythromycin0.06–0.1250.1250.125
Porphyromonas spp.k(19)GAR-936≤0.015–0.1250.060.06
Minocycline0.03–40.060.06
Doxycycline0.06–40.060.125
Tetracycline0.125–80.250.5
Levofloxacin0.125–212
Moxifloxacin0.06–0.250.1250.25
Penicillin-G≤0.015–4≤0.0150.5
Vancomycin2–>848
Azithromycin0.125–0.50.250.5
Erythromycin0.03–0.250.1250.25
Peptostreptococcusspp.l(21)GAR-936≤0.015–0.50.060.125
Minocycline0.03–80.1258
Doxycycline0.06–160.1254
Tetracycline0.125–320.516
Levofloxacin0.125–>80.52
Moxifloxacin0.06–0.50.250.5
Penicillin-G≤0.015–10.1250.25
Vancomycin0.125–0.50.250.5
Azithromycin0.25–>320.5>32
Erythromycin0.06–>1280.25>128
Gram-positive non-spore-forming rodsm(20)GAR-9360.06–.50.060.5
Minocycline0.06–10.1250.25
Doxycycline0.06–10.250.5
Tetracycline0.5–412
Levofloxacin0.125–10.250.5
Moxifloxacin0.06–10.250.5
Penicillin-G≤0.015–0.50.030.25
Vancomycin0.25–10.51
Azithromycin0.03–>320.060.25
Erythromycin0.03–>1280.060.25
  • a 50% and 90%, MICs at which 50 and 90% of isolates tested, respectively, are inhibited; NA, not applicable.

  • b M. atlantae (1), M. catarrhalis(5), M. lacunata (1), M. nonliquefaciens (2),M. osloensis (1), and Moraxella spp., no good fit (3).

  • c Bordetella bronchiseptica (2);Capnocytophaga sp. (1); CDC NO-1 (2); Haemophilus aphrophilus (1), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (1);Neisseria cinera or N. flavescens (1),Neisseria elongata (1), Neisseria species (2);Riemerella anatipestifer (2).

  • d C. accolens (1); C. argentoratense(1); Corynebacterium Grp. F1(1), Grp. G (1), and Grp. G2 (1); C. jeikeium (1); C. minutissimum (8);C. propinquum (1); C. ulcerans (1);Corynebacterium spp., no good fit (5).

  • e Brevibacterium spp. (4); Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (2), and Rothia dentocariosa (2).

  • f E. avium (2), E. durans (6),E. faecalis (7), E. malodoratus (2),Enterococcus sp. (1).

  • g S. capitus (1), S. cohnii (2),S. epidermidis (4), S. hominis (1), S. hyicus (1), S. intermedius (4), S. sciuri orS. lentus (2), S. warnerii (2), and S. xylosus (1).

  • h S. constellatus (2), S. dysgalactiae (1), S. intermedius (3), S. mutans (11), S. pyogenes (3), S. sanguis II(2), alpha Streptococcus sp., no good fit (1).

  • i F. necrophorum (1) and F. russii(9).

  • j P. bivia (3), P. buccae (2),P. denticola (1), P. enoeca (1), P. intermedia (1), P. intermedia or P. nigrescens (1), P. loeschii (1), P. melaninogenica (2), P. zoogleoformans (2), andPrevotella spp., no good fit (5).

  • k P. cangingivalis (4), P. canoris(7), P. cansulci (3), P. circumdentaria (2),P. circumdentaria or P. cansulci (2), andP. levii (1).

  • l P. anaerobius (7), P. asaccharolyticus (2), P. ivorii (1), P. magnus (3), P. micros (3), P. prevotii (3),P. tetradius (1), and Peptostreptococcus sp., no good fit (1).

  • m Actinomyces israelii (1), A. naeslundii (1), A. neuii (1), A. pyogenes(1), A. viscosus (2); Eubacterium spp. (3);Propionibacterium acnes (8), P. avidum (1),P. freudenreichii (1), and P. lympholyticum (1).