TABLE 1.

Chronology of discovery and distribution of CTX-M enzymes

Name (pIa)Countryb (yr)SpeciesReference(s)
FEC-1 (8.2)Japan (1986) E. coli 57
CTX-M-1c (8.4)France/Italy (1989) E. coli, P. mirabilis 13, 86
Germany (1989) E. coli 10
CTX-M-2 (7.9)Argentina (1992)Nontyphoid Salmonella, V. cholerae, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, Enterobacter spp., C. freundii, S. marcescens, M. morganii, E. aerogenes, A. hydrophila, Shigella flexneri 9, 71, 80, 80, 81
Paraguay and Uruguay (1994)Nontyphoid Salmonella 81
Israel (1992), Paraguay (1994) K. pneumoniae 9
France (1997) P. mirabilis 86
Brazil (1998) P. mirabilis 17
Japan (1998-2000) K. pneumoniae 102
CTX-M-3 (8.4-8.6)Poland (1996) C. freundii, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, S. marcescens, E. cloacae, M. morganii, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 5, 7, 41, 65
France (1998) E. cloacae 35
Japan (1998) E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens 102
Taiwan (1998) K. pneumoniae, E. coli 103, 104
Greece (1998) E. coli 59
China (1999) E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, C. freundii 97
CTX-M-4 (8.4)Russia (1996), Hungary (1998) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 38, 40, 92
CTX-M-4L (8.4)Hungary (1998) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 93
CTX-M-5d (8.8)Latvia (1996) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 20
CTX-M-6 (8.4)Greece (1997) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 39, 95
CTX-M-7 (8.4)Greece (1996) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 39, 95
CTX-M-8 (7.6)Brazil (1996) E. cloacae, C. amalonaticus, E. aerogenes 17
CTX-M-9 (7.9-8.1)France (1994) E. coli 86
Spain (1996) E. coli, S. enterica serovar Virchow 83, 85, 89
China (1997) E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae 29
Brazil (1998) E. coli 14
CTX-M-10 (8.1)Spain (1990) K. pneumoniae, E. coli, E. gergoviae, E. cloacae 24, 30, 63
CTX-M-12 (9.0)Kenya (1999) K. pneumoniae 50
CTX-M-13 (8.2)China (1998) K. pneumoniae 29
CTX-M-14e (7.9-8.3)France (1994) E. coli 86
Korea (1995) E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. sonnei 54, 64
Japan (1996) E. coli Ishii et al.f
China (1998) E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae 29
Taiwan (1998) E. coli, K. pneumoniae 104
Brazil (1999) E. coli Unpublished data
Spain (2001) E. coli 18
CTX-M-15g (8.6)India (1999) E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes 49
Poland (1998) E. coli, S. marcescens 6
Bulgaria (1997-2001) E. coli I. Schneider et al.h
France (2000), Japan E. coli Unpublished data
CTX-M-16 (8.2)Brazil (1996) E. coli 14
CTX-M-17Vietnam (1996) K. pneumoniae 26, 27
CTX-M-19 (8.0)France/Vietnam (1999) K. pneumoniae 74
CTX-M-20 (8.3)France (1998) P. mirabilis 86
CTX-M-21 (8.4)France (2000) E. coli 86
CTX-M-26England (2001) K. pneumoniae 21
CTX-M-27 (8.2)France (2000) E. coli 15
Toho-1 (7.8)Japan (1993) E. coli 47
Toho-2 (7.7)Japan (1995) E. coli 55
KLUC-1 (7.4)Pasteur Institute (2001P) K. cryocrescens reference strain 79.54 33
KLUA-1i (8.0)Pasteur Institute (2002P) K. ascorbata CIP82:95 45
KLUA-5j (8.0)Pasteur Institute (2002P) K. ascorbata IP12.79 45
KLUA-6 (8.4)Pasteur Institute (2002P) K. ascorbata IP15-79 45
KLUA-8 (8.0)Pasteur Institute (2002P) K. ascorbata IP3.89 45
KLUA-9 (8.4)France (2002P) K. ascorbata TN Ka01 45
KLUA-10 (8.0)Pasteur Institute (2002P) K. ascorbata IP43.50 45
KLUA-11 (8.4)Pasteur Institute (2002P) K. ascorbata IP4450.94 45
KLUG-1 (7.6)DSMZk (2002P) K. georgiana reference strain CUETM4246-74 78
  • a pI, isoelectric point of CTX-M enzyme.

  • b Countries of strain isolation (year of the first isolation or date of publication [P]).

  • c Designated MEN-1 (8) (Genbank accession number AAB22638 ).

  • d Designated KLUA-2 (45) (Genbank accession number AJ251722 ).

  • e Designated CTX-M-18 (74), Toho-3, and UOE-2 (Genbank accession numbers AF325133 , AF311345 , and AB038771 , respectively).

  • f Ishii, et al., 40th ICAAC.

  • g Designated UOE-1 and CTX-M-11 in Genbank (accession numbers AY013478 and AJ310929 , respectively).

  • h Schneider et al., 12th Congr. Clin. Microb. Infect. Dis.

  • i Encoded by the blaKLUA-1, blaKLUA-3, blaKLUA-4, and blaKLUA-12 genes.

  • j designated CTX-M-5 (20) (Genbank accession number AGG24824 ).

  • k DSMZ, Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH.