TABLE 1.

Chronology of discovery and distribution of CTX-M enzymes

Name (pIa)Countryb (yr)SpeciesReference(s)
FEC-1 (8.2)Japan (1986)E. coli57
CTX-M-1c (8.4)France/Italy (1989)E. coli, P. mirabilis13, 86
Germany (1989)E. coli10
CTX-M-2 (7.9)Argentina (1992)Nontyphoid Salmonella, V. cholerae, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, Enterobacter spp., C. freundii, S. marcescens, M. morganii, E. aerogenes, A. hydrophila, Shigella flexneri9, 71, 80, 80, 81
Paraguay and Uruguay (1994)Nontyphoid Salmonella81
Israel (1992), Paraguay (1994)K. pneumoniae9
France (1997)P. mirabilis86
Brazil (1998)P. mirabilis17
Japan (1998-2000)K. pneumoniae102
CTX-M-3 (8.4-8.6)Poland (1996)C. freundii, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, S. marcescens, E. cloacae, M. morganii, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium5, 7, 41, 65
France (1998)E. cloacae35
Japan (1998)E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens102
Taiwan (1998)K. pneumoniae, E. coli103, 104
Greece (1998)E. coli59
China (1999)E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, C. freundii97
CTX-M-4 (8.4)Russia (1996), Hungary (1998)S. enterica serovar Typhimurium38, 40, 92
CTX-M-4L (8.4)Hungary (1998)S. enterica serovar Typhimurium93
CTX-M-5d (8.8)Latvia (1996)S. enterica serovar Typhimurium20
CTX-M-6 (8.4)Greece (1997)S. enterica serovar Typhimurium39, 95
CTX-M-7 (8.4)Greece (1996)S. enterica serovar Typhimurium39, 95
CTX-M-8 (7.6)Brazil (1996)E. cloacae, C. amalonaticus, E. aerogenes17
CTX-M-9 (7.9-8.1)France (1994)E. coli86
Spain (1996)E. coli, S. enterica serovar Virchow83, 85, 89
China (1997)E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae29
Brazil (1998)E. coli14
CTX-M-10 (8.1)Spain (1990)K. pneumoniae, E. coli, E. gergoviae, E. cloacae24, 30, 63
CTX-M-12 (9.0)Kenya (1999)K. pneumoniae50
CTX-M-13 (8.2)China (1998)K. pneumoniae29
CTX-M-14e (7.9-8.3)France (1994)E. coli86
Korea (1995)E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. sonnei54, 64
Japan (1996)E. coliIshii et al.f
China (1998)E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae29
Taiwan (1998)E. coli, K. pneumoniae104
Brazil (1999)E. coliUnpublished data
Spain (2001)E. coli18
CTX-M-15g (8.6)India (1999)E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes49
Poland (1998)E. coli, S. marcescens6
Bulgaria (1997-2001)E. coliI. Schneider et al.h
France (2000), JapanE. coliUnpublished data
CTX-M-16 (8.2)Brazil (1996)E. coli14
CTX-M-17Vietnam (1996)K. pneumoniae26, 27
CTX-M-19 (8.0)France/Vietnam (1999)K. pneumoniae74
CTX-M-20 (8.3)France (1998)P. mirabilis86
CTX-M-21 (8.4)France (2000)E. coli86
CTX-M-26England (2001)K. pneumoniae21
CTX-M-27 (8.2)France (2000)E. coli15
Toho-1 (7.8)Japan (1993)E. coli47
Toho-2 (7.7)Japan (1995)E. coli55
KLUC-1 (7.4)Pasteur Institute (2001P)K. cryocrescens reference strain 79.5433
KLUA-1i (8.0)Pasteur Institute (2002P)K. ascorbata CIP82:9545
KLUA-5j (8.0)Pasteur Institute (2002P)K. ascorbata IP12.7945
KLUA-6 (8.4)Pasteur Institute (2002P)K. ascorbata IP15-7945
KLUA-8 (8.0)Pasteur Institute (2002P)K. ascorbata IP3.8945
KLUA-9 (8.4)France (2002P)K. ascorbata TN Ka0145
KLUA-10 (8.0)Pasteur Institute (2002P)K. ascorbata IP43.5045
KLUA-11 (8.4)Pasteur Institute (2002P)K. ascorbata IP4450.9445
KLUG-1 (7.6)DSMZk (2002P)K. georgiana reference strain CUETM4246-7478
  • a pI, isoelectric point of CTX-M enzyme.

  • b Countries of strain isolation (year of the first isolation or date of publication [P]).

  • c Designated MEN-1 (8) (Genbank accession number AAB22638).

  • d Designated KLUA-2 (45) (Genbank accession number AJ251722).

  • e Designated CTX-M-18 (74), Toho-3, and UOE-2 (Genbank accession numbers AF325133, AF311345, and AB038771, respectively).

  • f Ishii, et al., 40th ICAAC.

  • g Designated UOE-1 and CTX-M-11 in Genbank (accession numbers AY013478 and AJ310929, respectively).

  • h Schneider et al., 12th Congr. Clin. Microb. Infect. Dis.

  • i Encoded by the blaKLUA-1, blaKLUA-3, blaKLUA-4, and blaKLUA-12 genes.

  • j designated CTX-M-5 (20) (Genbank accession number AGG24824).

  • k DSMZ, Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH.