TABLE 1.

Baseline characteristics of the cohort and univariate analysis

CharacteristicBacteremia typeDeath during hospitalizationLength of stay (days)Delay in appropriate therapyCost (shekels)
ESBL (%) (n = 99)Non-ESBL (%) (n = 99)PDeaths (%) (n = 53)OR (95% CI)PMedian (IQR)MEPNo. (%) (n = 72)OR (95% CI)PMedian (IQR) (n = 168)aMEP
Demographics
    Median age, yr (IQR)76 (67-83)78 (68-85)0.5179 (71-83)0.100.3476 (68-83)0.880.10
    Male sex64 (65)47 (47)0.0228 (53)NSb0.638 (4-15)NS0.3644 (61)NS0.3019,272 (8,030-44,805)NS0.35
Comorbid conditions
    Diabetes mellitus27 (27)33 (33)0.4417 (32)NS0.737 (4-15)NS0.9120 (28)NS0.6314,454 (8,030-26,753)NS0.36
    Cardiovascular disease68 (69)75 (76)0.3440 (75)NS0.597 (4-14)NS0.0850 (69)NS0.5115,954 (8,030-30,514)NS0.10
    Pulmonary disease13 (13)13 (13)1.009 (17)NS0.358 (4-28)NS0.2212 (17)NS0.2816,060 (9,636-28,908)NS0.72
    Renal disease30 (30)22 (22)0.2613 (25)NS0.868 (4-13)NS0.3019 (26)NS1.0015,954 (8,030-28,908)NS0.30
    Hepatic disease14 (14)10 (10)0.516 (11)NS1.007 (3-10)NS0.259 (13)NS1.0024,040 (7,227-64,662)NS0.22
    Central nervous system disease14 (14)12 (12)0.8321 (40)18.4 (6.4-52.4)<0.0016 (1-14)NS0.188 (11)NS0.6628,908 (17,666-61,028)NS0.17
    Malignancy37 (37)32 (32)0.5522 (42)NS0.248 (4-16)NS0.4523 (32)NS0.5417,666 (8,030-38,544)NS0.57
    Transplant3 (3)2 (2)1.000 (0)NS7 (6-10)NS0.832 (3)NS1.00372,360 (16,308-720,163)5.720.003
    >2 comorbid conditions37 (37)33 (33)0.6626 (49)2.2 (1.2-4.2)0.027 (3-14)NS0.2623 (32)NS0.5419,616 (8,030-38,503)NS0.85
Treatment and procedures before bacteremia
    Immuno suppressive therapy18 (18)16 (16)0.8510 (19)NS0.687 (3-16)NS0.8913 (18)NS0.8516,060 (8,030-43,362)NS0.40
    Central venous catheter45 (45)20 (20)<0.00131 (59)4.6 (2.4-9.0)<0.00114 (5-27)1.90<0.00127 (38)NS0.3550,803 (19,883-107,686)3.03<0.001
    Urinary catheter80 (81)59 (60)0.00248 (91)5.7 (2.1-15.2)<0.0019 (4-18)1.540.00860 (83)3.0 (1.5-6.1)0.00220,878 (8,142-53,427)1.810.003
    Intensive care unit stay22 (22)8 (8)0.00911 (21)NS0.1919 (9-40)2.29<0.00113 (18)NS0.4159,422 (20,908-140,262)4.67<0.001
    Dialysis13 (13)4 (4)0.0410 (19)4.6 (1.7-12.8)0.0046 (2-11)NS0.217 (10)NS0.7924,090 (11,242-72,270)NS0.60
    Instrumentation54 (55)26 (26)<0.00120 (38)NS0.7410 (6-21)1.79<0.00136 (50)1.9 (1.0-3.4)0.0525,981 (16,060-61,028)2.55<0.001
    Surgery31 (31)11 (11)<0.0017 (13)NS0.1218 (9-32)2.77<0.00120 (28)NS0.1055,662 (24,344-144,810)4.01<0.001
    Mechanical ventilation30 (30)11 (11)0.00125 (47)7.2 (3.4-15.2)<0.00114 (6-32)1.730.00321 (29)2.2 (1.1-4.4)0.0349,116 (22,484-117,238)3.15<0.001
Other
    ESBL35 (66)2.46 (1.3-4.7)0.0111 (5-21)1.88<0.00165 (90)25.1 (10.5-60.2)<0.00126,873 (16,060-59,463)2.49<0.001
    Admitted from an institution27 (27)14 (14)0.0311 (21)NS1.0010 (4-18)NS0.2321 (29)2.2 (1.1-4.4)0.0316,060 (6,424-44,805)NS0.39
    Hospitalized in previous 3 mo51 (52)41 (41)0.2025 (47)NS1.007 (4-14)NS0.8532 (44)NS0.7714,454 (8,030-28,908)NS0.19
    Nosocomial bacteremia61 (62)27 (27)<0.00135 (66)3.4 (1.7-7.0)<0.00111 (6-22)1.15<0.00142 (58)2.4 (1.3-4.4)0.00538,646 (20,878-89,092)3.77<0.001
    Median length of stay before bacteremia, days (IQR)8 (1-24)1 (1-3)<0.001<0.0011.010.0040.0041.03<0.001
    Poor functional statusc65 (66)46 (47)0.0143 (81)4.9 (2.3-10.4)<0.0017 (3-17)NS0.9248 (67)2.0 (1.1-3.7)0.0320,878 (8,030-53,427)NS0.15
    Recent receipt of antibioticsd65 (66)17 (17)<0.00132 (60)2.9 (1.5-5.5)0.00211 (5-21)1.540.00543 (60)3.3 (1.8-6.0)<0.00138,461 (16,060-86,724)2.82<0.001
    High-risk source of bacteremiae41 (41)39 (39)0.8834 (64)3.9 (2.0-7.5)<0.0016 (4-14)NS0.8733 (46)NS0.2920,878 (8,030-53,427)NS0.53
    McCabe score on admissionf (mean ± SD)2.13 ± 0.551.83 ± 0.700.001
    High dichotomized McCabe scoreg31 (58)24.1 (9.8-59.3)<0.0017 (1-17)NS0.8115 (21)NS0.8527,481 (11,242-51,392)NS0.31
  • a Cost data were not available for all periods of patient enrollment.

  • b NS, not significant.

  • c Requiring assistance in activities of daily living.

  • d Receipt of antibiotics at time of admission or between admission and bacteremia.

  • e Lung or primary bacteremia.

  • f 1, expected to live >2 years; 2, expected to die within 2 years; 3, expected to die within 1 month.

  • g McCabe score of 3 versus McCabe score of 1 or 2.