TABLE 2

Univariate comparison between 30-day survivors and nonsurvivors in patients with breakthrough Acinetobacter bacteremia during carbapenem therapy

CharacteristicaAll (n = 100)Survivors (n = 43)Nonsurvivors (n = 57)P value
Demographical characteristics
    Age (median [IQR]) (yr)70.5 (53.25–80.75)75 (55–83)66 (52–79.5)0.215
    Male sex62 (62.0)22 (51.2)40 (70.2)0.083
    Recent ICU stay58 (58.0)26 (60.5)32 (56.1)0.819
    Bacteremia acquired in ICU66 (66.0)27 (62.8)39 (68.4)0.707
    Length of hospitalization before bacteremia (median [IQR]) (days)21.5 (13.25–36.5)25 (15–37)21 (11.5–36)0.477
    Comorbid conditions
    Alcoholism4 (4.0)0 (0.0)4 (7.0)0.132
    Liver cirrhosis9 (9.0)4 (9.3)5 (8.8)1.000
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease32 (32.0)12 (27.9)20 (35.1)0.585
    Chronic kidney disease38 (38.0)18 (41.9)20 (35.1)0.629
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus34 (34.0)14 (32.6)20 (35.1)0.959
    Hypertension42 (42.0)19 (44.2)23 (40.4)0.857
    Coronary artery disease17 (17.0)10 (23.3)7 (12.3)0.239
    Congestive heart failure24 (24.0)12 (27.9)12 (21.1)0.577
    Cerebrovascular accident19 (19.0)11 (25.6)8 (14.0)0.230
    Collagen vascular disease4 (4.0)3 (7.0)1 (1.8)0.312
    Immunosuppressant therapy12 (12.0)3 (7.0)9 (15.8)0.302
    Solid tumor16 (16.0)8 (18.6)8 (14.0)0.733
    Hematological malignancy10 (10.0)4 (9.3)6 (10.5)1.000
    Chemotherapy8 (8.0)4 (9.3)4 (7.0)0.722
    Neutropenia8 (8.0)2 (4.7)6 (10.5)0.460
    Trauma4 (4.0)3 (7.0)1 (1.8)0.312
    Burn1 (1.0)1 (2.3)0 (0.0)0.430
    Recent surgery25 (25.0)14 (32.6)11 (19.3)0.200
Charlson comorbidity index (median [IQR])4 (2–5.75)4 (2–6)4 (2–5)0.816
Invasive procedures
    Arterial catheter43 (43.0)19 (44.2)24 (42.1)0.997
    Central venous catheter55 (55.0)26 (60.5)29 (50.9)0.453
    Ventilator use76 (76.0)30 (69.8)46 (80.7)0.303
    Hemodialysis20 (20.0)9 (20.9)11 (19.3)1.000
    Thoracic drain11 (11.0)2 (4.7)9 (15.8)0.109
    Abdominal drain14 (14.0)8 (18.6)6 (10.5)0.389
Sources of bacteremia
    Pneumonia49 (49.0)21 (48.8)28 (49.1)1.000
    Catheter20 (20.0)6 (14.0)14 (24.6)0.289
    Urinary tract infection1 (1.0)1 (2.3)0 (0.0)0.430
    Intra-abdominal infection6 (6.0)2 (4.7)4 (7.0)0.697
    Wound2 (2.0)2 (4.7)0 (0.0)0.182
    Primary bacteremia22 (22.0)11 (25.6)11 (19.3)0.612
Carbapenem therapy before bacteremia
    Imipenem44 (44.0)23 (53.5)21 (36.8)0.145
    Meropenem53 (53.0)18 (41.9)35 (61.4)0.083
    Doripenem3 (3.0)2 (4.7)1 (1.8)0.576
Length of carbapenem therapy before bacteremia (median [IQR]) (days)9 (5–13)9 (4–13)9 (5–14)0.829
Antimicrobial therapy after bacteremia onsetb
    Appropriate antimicrobial therapy44 (44.0)23 (53.5)22 (38.6)0.201
    Continued carbapenem monotherapy59 (59.0)28 (65.1)31 (54.4)0.382
    Colistin-based therapyc19 (19.0)8 (18.6)11 (19.3)1.000
    Tigecycline-based therapy15 (15.0)3 (7.0)12 (21.1)0.095
    Fluoroquinolone-based therapy9 (9.0)3 (7.0)6 (10.5)0.728
    Sulbactam-based therapy5 (5.0)3 (7.0)2 (3.5)0.649
    Carbapenem- and colistin-based therapyc17 (17.0)7 (16.3)10 (17.5)1.000
    Outcome
    Shock34 (34.0)11 (25.6)23 (40.4)0.183
    APACHE II score (median [IQR])26 (18–31.75)22 (17–29)28 (21–33)0.014
Species causing bacteremia
    A. baumannii53 (53.0)17 (39.5)36 (63.2)0.032
    A. nosocomialis30 (30.0)15 (34.9)15 (26.3)0.481
    A. pittii13 (13.0)9 (20.9)4 (7.0)0.080
    A. soli2 (2.0)1 (2.3)1 (1.8)1.000
Microbiological characteristics of causative microorganisms
    Isolates harboring ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like22 (22.0)8 (18.6)13 (22.8)0.793
    Isolates harboring ISAba1-blaOXA-23-like37 (37.0)11 (25.6)26 (45.6)0.065
    Isolates harboring IS1008 (or IS1006)-ΔISAba3-blaOXA-58-like6 (6.0)0 (0.0)6 (10.5)0.036
    Isolates harboring blaOXA-24-like11 (11.0)6 (14.0)5 (8.8)0.523
    Isolates harboring blaIMP-like5 (5.0)4 (9.3)1 (1.8)0.162
    Isolates harboring blaVIM-like4 (4.0)2 (4.7)2 (3.5)1.000
  • a Data are presented as the number (%), unless otherwise indicated. IQR, interquartile range; ICU, intensive care unit; APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II.

  • b An antimicrobial agent (or antimicrobial agents)-based therapy denotes the corresponding antimicrobial agent(s) alone or in combination with other antimicrobial agent(s).

  • c Only intravenous colistin was included. Inhaled colistin was not included.