TABLE 2

Logistic regression analysis of risk factors for piperacillin neurotoxicity in critically ill patients

Risk factor of neurotoxicityOdds ratio (95% CI)P value
Univariate analysis
    Women2.11 (0.64–6.94)0.2183
    Age of >68 yr0.49 (0.16–1.48)0.2082
    History of brain injury (stroke or trauma)NDa
    History of epilepsy2.76 (0.23–32.5)0.4193
    History of alcoholism1.37 (0.3–6.18)0.6833
    Fever of >38°C1.75 (0.5–6.17)0.3843
    Sepsis5.16 (1.59–16.77)0.0064
    Invasive mechanical ventilation1.36 (0.45–4.1)0.5837
    Renal replacement therapy0.97 (0.28–3.33)0.9622
    Vasopressive comedication5.43 (1.49–19.82)0.0105
    Potentially neurotoxic comedication0.70 (0.19–2.57)0.6006
    Hepatic impairment2.84 (0.72–11.27)0.1369
    eGFR of <30 ml/min/1.73 m22.81 (0.91–8.68)0.0721
    Natremia of <135 mM1.37 (0.30–6.17)0.6833
    Calcemia of <2 mM2.61 (0.83–8.18)0.0993
    Lactatemia of >5 mMND
    pH of <7.353.18 (0.7–14.42)0.1343
    Piperacillin concn of ≥157.2 mg/liter26.58 (3.08–229.32)0.0028
Multivariate analysis
    eGFR of <30 ml/min/1.73 m21.37 (0.31–5.97)0.6769
    Vasopressive comedications1.78 (0.37–8.54)0.4705
    Sepsis2.36 (0.52–10.66)0.2656
    Calcemia of <2 mM3.55 (0.78–16.18)0.1013
    Piperacillin concn of ≥157.2 mg/liter14.86 (1.27–173.23)0.0313
  • a ND, not determinable.