TABLE 1.

Comparison of demographics, comorbid conditions, and clinical characteristics across treatment strataa

Demographic or clinical characteristicValue for groupP valueeValue for patients with:P valueh
High vancomycin dosebStandard vancomycin dosecLinezoliddNephrotoxicityfNo nephrotoxicityg
Mean (SD) age (yr)51.9 (16.1)57.8 (17.9)57.4 (18.6)0.360.2 (17.0)56.7 (18.0)0.3
No. (%) of male patients20 (76.9)113 (51.4)28 (62.2)0.0321 (58.3)140 (54.9)0.7
Mean (SD) height (in.)67.5 (3.6)66.0 (4.4)66.7 (4.3)0.266.2 (4.3)66.2 (4.3)1.0
Mean (SD) total body wt (kg)86.9 (40.8)78.4 (22.6)80.0(21.7)0.387.5 (36.1)78.3 (22.4)0.3
No. (%) of patients with total body wt of ≥101.4 kg5 (19.2)33 (15.0)7 (15.6)0.912 (33.3)33 (12.9)0.002
Mean (SD) ideal body wt (kg)64.3 (10.7)60.1 (10.9)62.0 (11.8)0.261.9 (10.9)60.6 (11.1)0.5
No. (%) of patients with diabetes mellitus7 (26.9)72 (32.7)12 (26.7)0.615 (41.7)76 (29.8)0.2
No. (%) of patients with heart failure1 (3.8)34 (15.5)7 (15.6)0.39 (25.0)33 (12.9)0.05
No. (%) of patients with COPD3 (11.5)37 (16.8)8 (17.8)0.87 (19.4)41 (16.1)0.6
No. (%) of patients with hepatic dysfunction3 (1.4)0 (0)1 (2.2)0.80 (0)4 (1.6)0.5
No. (%) of patients with decubitus ulcers0 (0)19 (8.6)3 (6.7)0.33 (8.3)19 (7.5)0.9
No. (%) of patients with human immunodeficiency virus1 (3.8)10 (4.5)0 (0)0.31 (2.8)10 (3.9)0.7
No. (%) of patients with malignancy3 (11.5)49 (22.3)8 (17.8)0.46 (16.7)54 (21.2)0.5
No. (%) of patients with prior surgery3 (11.5)58 (26.4)11 (24.4)0.39 (25.0)63 (24.7)1.0
No. (%) of patients with history of health care exposure18 (40.0)12 (46.2)91 (41.4)0.915 (41.7)106 (41.6)1.0
Median (range) length of stay prior to initiation of antibiotics (days)1 (0.38-4)2 (0-6.75)4 (0.5-9.5)0.32 (0-6)2 (0-7)0.7
No. (%) of patients in ICU at onset18 (69.2)83 (37.7)20 (44.4)0.00822 (61.1)99 (38.8)0.01
Mean (SD) baseline CrCl level (ml/min)78.8 (26.7)70.1 (29.0)70.9 (27.2)0.360.3 (22.4)72.5 (29.0)0.02
No. (%) of patients with baseline CrCl level of ≤86.6 ml/min18 (69.2)162 (73.6)33 (73.3)0.932 (88.9)181 (71.0)0.02
Mean (SD) APACHE-II score at initiation of antibiotics11.8 (5.4)10.8 (6.3)11.9 (5.2)0.411.9 (5.8)11.0 (6.1)0.4
No. (%) of patients with coadministration of aminoglycosides7 (26.9)21 (9.5)8 (17.8)0.024 (11.1)32 (12.5)0.8
No. (%) of patients with coadministration of nonaminoglycoside nephrotoxic agents7 (26.9)47 (21.4)6 (13.3)0.39 (25.0)51 (20.0)0.5
No. (%) of patients with indication for therapy:<0.0010.8
    Bloodstream infection4 (15.4)44 (20.0)11 (24.4)10 (27.8)49 (19.2)
    Central nervous system infection6 (23.1)7 (3.2)0 (0)2 (5.6)11 (4.3)
    Infective endocarditis0 (0)6 (2.7)0 (0)0 (0)6 (2.4)
    Intra-abdominal infection0 (0)0 (0)8 (3.6)3 (8.3)13 (5.1)
    Osteomyelitis1 (3.8)8 (3.6)2 (4.4)2 (5.6)9 (3.5)
    Prophylaxis1 (3.8)10 (4.5)0 (0)2 (5.6)9 (3.5)
    Respiratory tract infection12 (46.2)43 (19.5)14 (31.1)9 (25.0)60 (23.5)
    Skin and soft tissue infection0 (0)67 (30.5)3 (6.7)6 (16.7)64 (25.1)
    Unknown2 (7.7)14 (6.4)3 (6.7)1 (2.8)18 (7.1)
    Urinary tract infection0 (0)13 (5.9)4 (8.9)1 (2.8)16 (6.3)
No. (%) of patients with presence of MRSA in clinical culture5 (19.2)57 (25.9)12 (26.7)0.78 (22.2)66 (25.9)0.6
Mean (SD) initial vancomycin trough level (mg/dl)18.4 (7.9)9.1 (4.5)NA<0.000114.6 (8.3)9.6 (5.1)<0.001
Mean (SD) primary vancomycin trough level (mg/dl)18.9 (9.4)12.4 (5.0)NA0.0418.5 (7.4)12.0 (4.9)<0.001
  • a COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NA, not applicable.

  • b Dose of ≥4 g per day (n = 26).

  • c Dose of <4 g per day (n = 220).

  • d n = 45.

  • e P values for comparisons between treatment groups.

  • f n = 36.

  • g n = 255.

  • h P values for comparisons of patients with nephrotoxicity to those without.