TABLE 1.

Features of Enterococcus faecium blood isolates recovered from 1995 to 2002 in the Ramón y Cajal Hospital: clinical data, PFGE, antibiotic resistance, and virulence profiles

PFGE typeDate (mo/yr)No. of isolatesAFLPaWardbAntibiotic resistance profilecVIEP markerdpurK allele
ASECQDKGSxTVesphyl
ASEF-97/961CPediatricsRRR1
ASEF-126/971CGeneral surgeryRR1
ASEF-264/001RGastroenterologyRRRRR1
ASEF-312/951AGeneral surgery2
ASEF-48/951BHematologyR2
ASEF-26/951BOutpatientR2
ASEF-59/951NTOutpatientR2
ASEF-137/971BOutpatientR2
ASEF-1411/971BNephrology2
ASEF-219/991BOutpatient2
ASEF-2210/991BOutpatientR2
ASEF-1011/961AOutpatientR3
ASEF-311/011NTOutpatientRRR3
ASEF-3310/021RHematology4
ASEF-611/951CCardiologyRR6
ASEF-81/961CRehabilitationRRR6
ASEF-241/001CICU—general surgeryRR6
ASEF-16/951RNeurosurgery8
ASEF-1611/971NTGastroenterology8
ASEF-1712/971BICU—medicineR8
ASEF-198/991RMaxillofacial surgery8
ASEF-1112/961AGeneral surgeryR9
ASEF-1812/971NTGastroenterologyR9
ASEF-208/991CNephrology9
ASEF-251/001NTOutpatient9
ASEF-2911/011NTOutpatientRR9
ASEF-3011/011AOutpatientRRR11
ASEF-325/021ROutpatientRRR16
ASEF-72/961NTLiver transplantR17
ASEF-1511/971RICU—pediatricsR22
ASEF-289/011ROutpatientR22
ASEF-2311/991NTICU—neurosurgeryNT
AREF-A8/95-11/976C (n = 2), NT (n = 4)Gastroenterology (5), ICU—cardiology (1)R(R)R(R)R1
AREF-P7/95-10/952C (n = 2)Liver transplant (1), outpatient (1)RRRRR+1
AREF-B4/961NTTraumatologyRRRRRR+1
AREF-C5/961CInfectious diseasesRRRRRRRR1
AREF-V10/961NTOphthalmologyRRRRNT
AREF-E1/971CVascular surgeryRRRRRR+1
AREF-F2/971COutpatientRRRRRR1
AREF-D4/97-12/0216C (n = 9), NT (n = 7)Abdominal surgery (12), gastroenterology (2), traumatology (1), outpatient (1)R(R)RR(R)R(R)R−/+−/+1
AREF-W2/98-9/013C (n = 3)Internal medicine (1), ICU—abdominal surgery (1), ICU—vascular surgery (1)R(R)(R)RRRR(R)+−/+1
1/00-5/012C (n = 2)ICU—abdominal surgery (1), ICU—vascular surgery (1)R(R)(R)RRRR(R)+21
AREF-G2/981CCardiologyRRRRR1
AREF-H3/981CGastroenterologyRRRRR1
AREF-Z5/982CAbdominal surgeryRRRRRR(R)R1
AREF-K5/991NTEmergency roomRRR1
AREF-J12/991CICU—PediatricsRRRRR1
AREF-Q1/001CICU—pediatricsRRR1
AREF-M7/001COncologyRRRRRRR1
AREF-N8/001CInfectious diseasesRRRRRRR1
AREF-L10/001ANephrologyRR6
AREF-R5/011NTOncologyRRRR1
AREF-Y7/011CInfectious diseasesRRRRRR1
AREF-S11/011AGastroenterologyRRRRR9
AREF-T11/01-8/024C (n = 1), NT (n = 3)Gastroenterology (3), ICU—medicine (1)RR(R)RR++1
AREF-I1/021CVascular surgeryRRRRR1
AREF-U7/021CICU—pediatricsRRRRRR1
AREF-X12/021NTOncologyRRRRRRR1
  • a NT, not tested.

  • b ICU, intensive-care unit.

  • c R, resistant, (R), variable resistance to a given antibiotic among isolates belonging to the same PFGE type. A, ampicillin; S, streptomycin (high level of resistance); E, erythromycin; C, ciprofloxacin; QD, quinupristin-dalfopristin; K, kanamycin (high level of resistance); G, gentamicin (high level of resistance); Sx, cotrimoxazole; T, tetracycline; V, vancomycin. All isolates resistant to vancomycin were also resistant to teicoplanin, corresponding to the vanA genotype.

  • d Presence (+) or absence (−). Some isolates belonging to the same PFGE type showed variable presence of a given VIEP marker (−/+).