TABLE 2.

Mode of action of APs

APSize (kDa)Mode of action
tPMP-17.95MP in a voltage-dependent manner; intracellular targets; minimal depolarization
hNP-13.8Forms voltage-gated pores in the bacterial CM; depolarization
Gramicidin D1.9MP via the formation of monovalent, cation-specific channels
Polymyxin B1.2High binding affinity with lipopolysaccharides, followed by phospholipid transfer and osmotic dysregulation