TABLE 4.

Characterization of a number of cultured bacterial isolates encoding different sul genotypes

IsolateBacterial sourcea16S rRNA gene identification% BLASTb similaritysul geneClass of integroncAntibiotic resistance phenotype of isolateseMIC of SCP (mg liter−1)
C2371, Preapp (soil)Bacillus sphaericus981Smr Tmpr Nalr1
C4222,21 (soil)Stenotrophomonas maltophilia9812Smr1
C1312,240 (soil)Pseudomonas fluorescens971Tetr32
C3Pig slurryAcinetobacter lwoffi9912NG1
PGS22Pig slurryAerococcus viridians9921dSmr Cmr Tetr Nmr Nalr8
C506Soil leachateShigella flexneri9921dSmr Cmr Tetr Tmpr Nmr Nalr Kmr Ampr8
C7011, Preapp (soil)Pseudomonas lini9922Smr Ampr Tmpr Nalr1
C4392,90 (Soil)Acinetobacter sp. N29722Smr Tetr Tmpr Nalr16
C5Pig slurryPseudomonas borealis9932Cmr Tetr32
PGS48Pig slurryEnterococcus hirae973Smr Tetr4
C1672,1 (soil)Providencia stuart2973Smr Tetr6
C2Pig slurryAcinetobacter lwoffi973Smr Cmr Tetr Tmpr Nalr5
C2311,21 (soil)Pseudomonas putida971 + 21dAmpr Cmr Tetr Nmr Nalr8
C3611,289 (soil)Arthrobacter arilaitensis991 + 21dSmr Cmr Tetr Nmr Nalr5
PGS49Pig slurryAcinetobacter sp. An9991 + 22Smr Nalr16
C4101,1 (soil)Psychrobacter ikaite981 + 22Tetr16
PGS47Pig slurryAcinetobacter lwoffi972 + 32Smr Nalr16
PGS61Pig slurryEnterococcus sulfureus972 + 3Smr Tetr4
PGS21Pig slurryAerococcus viridans992 + 32Cmr Tetr32
C15Pig slurryAcinetobacter lwoffi991 + 2 + 32Smr Cmr Tetr Tmpr Nmr Nalr5
C20Pig slurryPsychrobacter ikaite981 + 2 + 3Smr Cmr Tetr Tmpr Nalr5
C7111, Preapp (soil)Psychrobacter sp. DY9-2971 + 2 + 3Smr Tetr Tmpr Nalr8
C7121, Preapp (soil)Psychrobacter frigidicola961 + 2 + 3Smr Tetr Tmpr Nalr8
C7131, Preapp (soil)Psychrobacter ikaite971 + 2 + 32Smr Cmr Tetr Tmpr Nalr8
C351, Preapp (soil)Acinetobacter calcoaceticus971 + 2 + 3Smr Cmr Tetr Tmpr Nalr8
C361, Preapp (soil)Acinetobacter calcoaceticus971 + 2 + 3Smr Cmr Tetr Tmpr Nalr8
C371, Preapp (soil)Acinetobacter lwoffi971 + 2 + 3Smr Cmr Tetr Tmpr Nalr8
C441,1 (soil)Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae981 + 2 + 3Smr Cmr Tetr Tmpr Nmr Nalr5
C1412,21 (soil)Acinetobacter lwoffi981 + 2 + 3Smr Kmr Cmr Tetr TmprNmr Nalr Ampr6
C3282,21 (soil)Bacillus psychrodurans981 + 2 + 3Smr Kmr Cmr Tetr Nmr Nalr8
C4422,90 (soil)Acinetobacter baumannii991 + 2 + 3Cmr Tetr Nalr8
  • a 1, Preapp (soil), soil cores from year 1 before slurry application; 1,1, soil cores from year 1, day 1 time point; 1,289, soil cores from year 1, day 289 time point; 2,1, soil cores from year 2, day 1 time point.

  • b Percent nucleotide similarity of an approximately 800-bp 16S rRNA gene sequence to bacterial strains submitted to databases and searched using the BLAST program (1).

  • c qacEΔ1/qacE was screened for in all intI1-positive isolates.

  • d qacEΔ1 detected.

  • e Antibiotic resistance breakpoints: Smr, resistance to 16 μg ml−1 streptomycin; Ampr, 16 μg ml−1 ampicillin; Kmr, 16 μg ml−1 kanamycin; Cmr, 16 μg ml−1 chloramphenicol; Tetr, 8 μg ml−1 tetracycline; Tmpr, 16 μg ml−1, trimethoprim; Nmr, 8 μg ml−1 neomycin; Nalr, 16 μg ml−1, nalidixic acid. NG, no growth.