TABLE 4.

Risk factor analysis including 42 cases and 673 controls

VariableNo. (%) or mean ± SD for groupP value
CasesControls
Age (yr)55 ± 2249 ± 230.07
Male sex28 (67)444 (56)0.2
Length of hospitalization before enrollment (days)14 ± 274 ± 90.02
Previous hospitalization19 (45)173 (22)0.0005
Previous ambulatory visita12 (29)220 (28)0.9
Residence in long-term care facility or nursing home2 (5)20 (3)0.4
Previous ICU admissiona6 (14)34 (4)0.003
Diabetes6 (14)91 (12)0.6
HIV infection12 (29)163 (21)0.2
Urinary catheterb13 (31)124 (16)0.01
Tracheotomyb4 (10)23 (3)0.02
Central venous catheterb6 (14)70 (9)0.2
Cirrhosis2 (5)50 (6)0.7
Cancer5 (12)99 (13)0.9
Chronic renal failure5 (12)42 (5)0.07
Dialysis1 (2)8 (1)0.4
Treatment with class/type of antibiotic
    Broad-spectrum cephalosporins12 (29)249 (37)0.2
    Narrow-spectrum to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins1 (2)10 (1)0.4
    Metronidazole/clindamycin3 (7)37 (6)0.7
    Carbapenems12 (29)81 (12)0.002
    Quinolones17 (40)224 (33)0.3
    Glycopeptides9 (21)96 (14)0.2
    Macrolides10 (24)151 (22)0.8
    Penicillins10 (24)164 (24)0.9
  • a Within 30 days.

  • b At study enrollment.