TABLE 2.

Virucidal effects of essential oils against acyclovir-sensitive HSV-1 strain KOS, acyclovir-resistant strain Angelotti, and acyclovir-resistant clinical isolates 1246/99 and 496/02a

StepResult (%) for indicated oil and strain
Ginger oilThyme oilHyssop oilSandalwood oil
KOSAng1246/99496/02KOSAng1246/99496/02KOSAng1246/99496/02KOSAng1246/99496/02
Pretreatment of cells101.3 ± 8.499.4 ± 5.5109.3 ± 3.287.9 ± 4.1101.1 ± 8.093.9 ± 18.1117.9 ± 10.489.3 ± 1.095.7 ± 10.789.2 ± 6.4104.8 ± 4.898.6 ± 2.3104.3 ± 2.697.1 ± 8.5104.7 ± 7.785.9 ± 1.6
Pretreatment of virus0.1 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.10.3 ± 0.20.1 ± 0.13.4 ± 2.94.1 ± 3.21.2 ± 0.90.3 ± 0.30.1 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.20.3 ± 0.30.1 ± 0.12.1 ± 2.90.2 ± 0.21.1 ± 0.80.3 ± 0.2
Adsorption66.5 ± 4.070.7 ± 3.168.2 ± 9.447.1 ± 0.992.2 ± 9.291.3 ± 5.087.2 ± 8.361.1 ± 3.376.1 ± 5.9105.3 ± 12.080.0 ± 10.051.2 ± 4.962.3 ± 12.9104.3 ± 8.289.8 ± 5.971.0 ± 5.2
Replication87.2 ± 19.5101.6 ± 8.395.4 ± 6.0100.8 ± 3.3101.5 ± 15.999.3 ± 0.599.1 ± 11.398.4 ± 0.888.1 ± 10.297.6 ± 7.0106.8 ± 10.099.7 ± 4.087.4 ± 18.985.0 ± 0.5105.5 ± 2.693.6 ± 0.1
  • a The maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the essential oils were used for all experiments. Data represent percentages of plaques compared to those for untreated controls. Experiments were repeated independently two times, and data presented are the means ± standard deviations for three experiments. Ang, Angelotti strain.