TABLE 2

Haplotypes of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 in different countriesa

AreabCountryfPfcrtcPfmdr1c
Total no. of isolatesWTd (CVMNK) (no. [%])Mutation type (no. [%])Mixed type (CV M/I N/E K/T) (%)Total no. of isolatesWT (NY) (no. [%])Mutation type (no. [%])Mixed type (no. [%])
CVIETSVMNTYYNFYFN Y/FY Y/F
WANigeria2513 (52.00)4 (16.00)0 (0.00)8 (32.00)2611 (42.31)0 (0.00)8 (30.77)4 (15.38)3 (11.54)0 (0.00)
Liberia151 (6.67)9 (60.00)0 (0.00)5 (33.33)204 (20.00)2 (10.00)7 (35.00)7 (35.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Guinea80 (0.00)5 (62.50)0 (0.00)3 (37.50)92 (22.22)0 (0.00)6 (66.67)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (11.11)
Sierra Leone21 (50.00)1 (50.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)60 (0.00)1 (16.67)3 (50.00)1 (16.67)0 (0.00)1 (16.67)
Ghana43 (75.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (25.00)62 (33.33)0 (0.00)3 (50.00)1 (16.67)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Ivory Coast31 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)40 (0.00)0 (0.00)4 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Benin32 (66.67)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (33.33)31 (33.33)0 (0.00)1 (33.33)1 (33.33)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Niger33 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)32 (66.67)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (33.33)0 (0.00)
Burkina Faso11 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)10 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Mali10 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (100.00)10 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (100.00)0 (0.00)
Subtotal6527 (41.54)19 (29.23)0 (0.00)19 (29.23)7922 (27.85)3 (3.80)33 (41.77)14 (17.72)5 (6.33)2 (2.53)
SAAngola2410 (41.67)10 (41.67)0 (0.00)4 (16.67)2913 (44.83)2 (6.90)9 (31.03)0 (0.00)3 (10.34)2 (6.90)
Zambia109 (90.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (10.00)106 (60.00)0 (0.00)4 (40.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Mozambique98 (88.89)1 (11.11)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)93 (33.33)0 (0.00)5 (55.56)1 (11.11)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Subtotal4327 (62.79)11 (25.58)0 (0.00)5 (11.63)4822 (45.83)2 (4.17)18 (37.50)1 (2.08)3 (6.25)2 (4.17)
CACongo2212 (54.55)5 (22.73)0 (0.00)5 (22.73)206 (30.00)4 (20.00)5 (25.00)2 (10.00)3 (15.00)0 (0.00)
EG117 (63.64)3 (27.27)0 (0.00)1 (9.09)102 (20.00)0 (0.00)3 (30.00)5 (50.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Cameroon76 (85.71)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (14.29)63 (50.00)0 (0.00)2 (33.33)1 (16.67)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Gabon31 (33.33)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)2 (66.67)32 (66.67)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (33.33)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
CAR11 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)10 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Subtotal4427 (61.36)8 (18.18)0 (0.00)9 (20.45)4013 (32.50)4 (10.00)11 (27.50)9 (22.50)3 (7.50)0 (0.00)
EAUganda51 (20.00)1 (20.00)0 (0.00)3 (60.00)60 (0.00)1 (16.67)4 (66.67)0 (0.00)1 (16.67)0 (0.00)
South Sudan31 (33.33)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)2 (66.67)32 (66.67)0 (0.00)1 (33.33)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Tanzania43 (75.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (25.00)40 (0.00)2 (50.00)1 (25.00)0 (0.00)1 (25.00)0 (0.00)
Ethiopia20 (0.00)1 (50.00)0 (0.00)1 (50.00)20 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (50.00)1 (50.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Rwanda11 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)11 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Subtotal156 (40.00)2 (13.33)0 (0.00)7 (46.67)163 (18.75)3 (18.75)7 (43.75)1 (6.25)2 (12.50)0 (0.00)
NASudan31 (33.33)1 (33.33)0 (0.00)1 (33.33)30 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (33.33)1 (33.33)1 (33.33)0 (0.00)
Libya10 (0.00)1 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)10 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Subtotal41 (25.00)2 (50.00)0 (0.00)1 (25.00)40 (0.00)0 (0.00)1 (25.00)2 (50.00)1 (25.00)0 (0.00)
SEAIndonesia31 (33.33)0 (0.00)2 (66.67)0 (0.00)32 (66.67)0 (0.00)1 (33.33)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Burma20 (0.00)2 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)22 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Laos00 (—e)0 (—)0 (—)0 (—)11 (100.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Subtotal51 (20.00)2 (40.00)2 (40.00)0 (0.00)65 (83.33)0 (0.00)1 (16.67)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
All areasTotal17689 (50.57)44 (25.00)2 (1.14)41 (23.30)19365 (33.68)12 (6.22)71 (36.79)27 (13.99)14 (7.25)4 (2.07)
  • a The haplotypes were constructed considering codon positions 72 to 76 of Pfcrt and codon positions 86 and 184 of Pfmdr1.

  • b WA, SA, CA, EA, NA, and SEA represent West Africa, South Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, and Southeast Asia, respectively.

  • c Amino acid mutations are underlined.

  • d WT, wild type.

  • e —, no data.

  • f EG, Equatorial Guinea; CAR, Central African Republic.