TABLE 2

Comparison between patients with IE due to GNB (cases) and patients with IE due to other etiologies

VariableaValueb for patients with IE due to:P
GNB (n = 58)Other etiologies (n = 174)
Demographic data
    Males39 (67.2)117 (67.6)1.0
    Median (range) age (yr)69.5 (57.75–77)69.5 (60–76)1.0
Type of endocarditis
    NVE34 (58.6)118 (67.8)0.202
    PVE16 (27.6)48 (27.6)1.0
    Device-related IE8 (13.8)8 (4.6)0.017
Comorbidities
    Diabetes19 (32.8)30 (17.2)0.012
    Hemodialysis1 (1.7)5 (2.9)0.633
    Malignancies10 (17.2)16 (9.2)0.093
    HIV infection2 (3.4)4 (2.3)0.633
Risk factors
    IVDU5 (8.6)15 (8.6)1.0
    Dental procedures3 (5.2)13 (7.5)0.537
    CVC12 (20.7)16 (10)0.021
    CIED15 (25.9)19 (10.9)0.005
    Congenital heart disease4 (6.9)10 (5.7)0.758
    Immunosuppression9 (15.5)7 (4)0.003
    Pre-existing valvular disease18 (31)57 (32.8)0.808
Invasive procedures within 180 days
    Dental procedures3 (5.2)13 (7.5)0.537
    Esophagogastroscopy1 (1.7)5 (2.9)0.633
    Colonoscopy4 (6.9)6 (3.4)0.263
    Cystoscopy3 (5.2)3 (1.7)0.152
Route of acquisition
    Community acquired32 (55.2)116 (66.7)0.115
    Healthcare associated24 (41.4)49 (28.2)0.060
    Nosocomially acquired2 (3.4)9 (5.2)0.593
Complications
    Stroke7 (12.1)27 (15.5)0.520
    Embolism14 (24.1)64 (36.8)0.078
    Heart failure15 (25.9)72 (41.4)0.030
    Septic shock2 (3.4)3 (1.7)0.434
    Arrhythmias5 (8.6)27 (15.5)0.187
Echocardiographic findings
    Evidence of vegetation50 (86.2)155 (89.1)0.555
    Median (range) size of vegetation (mm)14 (6.5–20)10 (8–15)0.027
    Cardiac abscess3 (5.2)17 (9.8)0.280
    Perforation4 (6.9)8 (4.6)0.494
    Dehiscence6 (10.3)9 (5.2)0.165
    New regurgitation10 (17.2)63 (36.2)0.007
    Fistula0 (0)4 (2.3)0.244
Presumed source of infection
    Genitourinary tract16 (27.6)6 (3.4)<0.001
    Skin8 (13.8)28 (16.1)0.675
    Nonoral gastrointestinal tract9 (15.5)37 (21.3)0.342
    Oral3 (5.2)18 (10.3)0.234
    Other or unknown24 (41.4)81 (46.6)0.493
Treatment (surgery plus antibiotic therapy)25 (43.1)79 (45.4)0.760
Outcomes
    All-cause in-hospital mortality8 (13.8)23 (13.2)0.911
    IE-related in-hospital mortality8 (13.8)21 (12.1)0.731
    Cumulative all-cause 1-yr mortalityc15 (30.6)NA
    Cumulative IE-related 1-yr mortalityc11 (22.4)NA
  • a NVE, native valve endocarditis; PVE, prosthetic valve endocarditis; IVDU, intravenous drug user; CVC, central venous catheter (including any of the following: arteriovenous fistula, chronic intravenous catheter, or acute central catheter); CIED, cardiac implantable electronic device (12 permanent pacemakers and 3 cardioverter defibrillators in patients with endocarditis due to GNB; 17 permanent pacemakers and 2 cardioverter defibrillators in patients with other causes of endocarditis).

  • b Values are numbers (percentages) of patients except where otherwise indicated.

  • c Cumulative 1-year mortality was calculated for 49 patients (8 patients who died during the hospital stay and 41 patients with available follow-up after 1 year). NA, not available.