TABLE 1

Characteristics associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality among patients with sepsis due to carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Characteristica (n = 215)Survivor (n = 169)Nonsurvivor (n = 46)P value
Age, median (yr [IQR])58 (44–67)61 (52–70)0.060
    Age ≥65 yr (n [%])59 (34.9)19 (41.3)0.424
Yr of infection (n [%])0.224
    201259 (34.9)17 (37.0)0.797
    201342 (24.9)7 (15.2)0.167
    201428 (16.6)13 (28.3)0.073
    201540 (23.7)9 (19.6)0.556
ICU admission (n [%])86 (50.9)31 (67.4)0.046
Length of stay (median days [IQR])b3 (1–18)10 (1–29)0.034
Hospital-acquired infection (n [%])c93 (55.0)33 (71.7)0.041
Time to appropriate treatment (mean ± SD h)d16.3 ± 27.628.5 ± 77.50.302
Antibiotic treatment (n [%])e,f0.089
    Aminoglycoside monotherapy24 (14.2)15 (32.6)0.004
    Colistin monotherapy13 (7.7)1 (2.2)0.311
    Cefepime monotherapy74 (43.8)14 (30.4)0.102
    Fluoroquinolone monotherapy10 (5.9)4 (8.7)0.505
    Piperacillin-tazobactam monotherapy38 (22.5)8 (17.4)0.455
    Aztreonam monotherapy1 (0.6)1 (2.2)0.383
    Ceftolozane/tazobactam monotherapy1 (0.6)0 (0.0)>0.999
    Combination therapy8 (4.7)3 (6.5)0.705
Infection site (n [%])0.081
    Intraabdominal9 (5.3)3 (6.5)0.754
    Respiratory tract74 (43.8)30 (65.2)0.010
    Bloodstream/endovascular17 (10.1)4 (8.7)>0.999
    Urinary tract43 (25.4)3 (6.5)0.004
    Skin/soft tissue/osteomyelitis26 (15.4)6 (13.0)0.692
Previous hospitalization (n [%])g151 (89.3)46 (100)0.015
Invasive surgical procedure (n [%])h86 (50.9)23 (50.0)0.915
Central venous catheter (n [%])h133 (78.7)32 (69.6)0.194
Urinary catheter (n [%])h107 (63.3)32 (69.6)0.432
Other invasive device (n [%])h37 (21.9)11 (23.9)0.771
Mechanical ventilation (n [%])105 (62.1)43 (93.5)<0.001
Previous antibiotic exposure (n [%])i131 (77.5)42 (91.3)0.036
    Carbapenemi81 (47.9)27 (58.7)0.195
Vasopressor requirement (n [%])70 (41.4)41 (89.1)<0.001
Immunosuppression (n [%])56 (33.1)28 (60.9)0.001
    Solid organ transplantation14 (8.3)7 (15.2)0.160
    Stem cell transplantation18 (10.7)5 (10.9)>0.999
Acute kidney injury (n [%])j48 (28.4)13 (28.3)0.985
SIRS criteria (median [IQR])3 (2–3)3 (2–3)0.541
Charlson comorbidity index (median [IQR])6 (3–8)7 (5–11)0.007
APACHE II score (median [IQR])13 (10–17)15 (12–19)0.030
  • a IQR, interquartile range; SD, standard deviation; APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II.

  • b Before index culture.

  • c Hospitalized >48 h before index culture without previous evidence of infection.

  • d Treatment with an agent to which the organism was phenotypically susceptible in vitro.

  • e Monotherapy defined as receipt of <2 antibiotics to which the organism was susceptible in vitro as definitive therapy for ≥48 h.

  • f Combination therapy defined as receipt of ≥2 antibiotics to which the organism was susceptible in vitro as definitive therapy for ≥48 h.

  • g Within the preceding 6 months.

  • h During the index hospitalization before index culture.

  • i Within the preceding 3 months.

  • j Determined by diagnosis code as recorded by a treating physician.