TABLE 3

Multivariable logistic regression analysis of epidemiologic and clinical risk factors for VRE colonizationb

CharacteristicModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4 (final model)
OR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)P
Demographics
    Age (yr)1.00 (0.99–1.01)0.551.00 (1.00–1.01)0.321.00 (1.00–1.01)0.271.00 (1.00–1.01)0.24
    Male1.16 (0.94–1.42)0.161.15 (0.94–1.41)0.181.16 (0.94–1.42)0.161.16 (0.94–1.42)0.17
Yr of screening
    2014ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
    20150.79 (0.63–1.00)0.050.78 (0.62–0.98)0.030.77 (0.61–0.98)0.030.78 (0.62–0.98)0.04
    20160.47 (0.37–0.61)<0.0010.45 (0.35–0.58)<0.0010.45 (0.35–0.57)<0.0010.45 (0.35–0.57)<0.001
Comorbidities and prior carriage of antimicrobial-resistant
organism
    CCI > 50.98 (0.78–1.22)0.830.91 (0.73–1.15)0.440.89 (0.71–1.13)0.350.89 (0.70–1.12)0.33
    Prior carriage of VRE5.86 (3.91–8.79)<0.0015.69 (3.77–8.59)<0.0015.32 (3.50–8.09)<0.0015.23 (3.43–7.97)<0.001
    Prior carriage of MRSA2.00 (1.61–2.48)<0.0011.86 (1.49–2.33)<0.0011.85 (1.47–2.31)<0.0011.83 (1.46–2.29)<0.001
Details of current and prior hospital admissions
    Admitted to health care facility
        ACHReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
        ITCFs0.50 (0.38–0.65)<0.0010.48 (0.37–0.63)<0.0010.49 (0.37–0.64)<0.0010.77 (0.48–1.24)0.28
        LTCFs0.04 (0.02–0.09)<0.0010.05 (0.03–0.11)<0.0010.06 (0.03–0.13)<0.0010.05 (0.02–0.13)<0.001
    Length of stay of >14 days1.42 (1.14–1.76)<0.011.32 (1.06–1.65)0.011.28 (1.02–1.60)0.030.61 (0.38–0.96)0.03
    Prior admission to study ACH1.08 (0.87–1.35)0.481.05 (0.84–1.31)0.661.00 (0.80–1.25)0.991.01 (0.80–1.26)0.96
    No. of beds per room
        1ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
        2–41.43 (0.90–2.28)0.131.36 (0.85–2.18)0.201.36 (0.85–2.18)0.201.37 (0.86–2.20)0.19
        5–81.57 (1.12–2.21)<0.011.61 (1.14–2.26)<0.011.61 (1.14–2.27)<0.011.61 (1.14–2.27)<0.01
        >81.99 (1.28–3.09)<0.012.13 (1.37–3.33)<0.012.14 (1.37–3.35)<0.012.06 (1.32–3.23)<0.01
Proton pump inhibitor use1.79 (1.37–2.34)<0.0011.70 (1.29–2.22)<0.0011.63 (1.24–2.15)<0.0011.63 (1.24–2.14)<0.01
No. of days of antibiotic therapya
    0ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
    1–33.24 (1.59–6.58)<0.013.04 (1.49–6.19)<0.012.77 (1.36–5.65)<0.012.79 (1.37–5.70)<0.01
    4–74.13 (2.24–7.62)<0.0014.00 (2.17–7.39)<0.0013.57 (1.92–6.63)<0.0013.59 (1.93–6.67)<0.001
    >77.54 (4.34–13.09)<0.0016.54 (3.76–11.38)<0.0015.69 (3.24–9.98)<0.0015.62 (3.20–9.87)<0.001
    Unknown4.10 (0.87–19.36)0.083.52 (0.74–16.84)0.123.10 (0.65–14.85)0.162.97 (0.62–14.15)0.17
Surgery and ulcer
    Surgery in the past 90 days1.59 (1.29–1.96)<0.0011.51 (1.23–1.87)<0.0011.44 (1.17–1.79)<0.01
    Presence of a skin ulcer1.70 (1.37–2.11)<0.0011.68 (1.35–2.09)<0.0011.74 (1.40–2.17)<0.001
Indwelling devices
    Peripheral line1.79 (0.94–3.43)0.081.69 (0.88–3.25)0.12
    Dialysis line1.29 (0.92–1.80)0.141.29 (0.92–1.81)0.14
    PEG tube0.93 (0.70–1.24)0.640.91 (0.68–1.21)0.52
    Indwelling urinary catheter1.24 (1.01–1.53)0.041.63 (1.04–2.56)0.03
Interaction between ACH and:
    Length of stay of >14 days2.61 (1.55–4.39)<0.001
    Presence of an indwelling urinary catheter0.69 (0.42–1.14)0.15
Model assessment
    Log likelihood−1,376.9879−1,356.6193−1,351.6096−1,344.6439
    Likelihood-ratio test P value<0.0010.04<0.01
    Area under ROC0.81630.82290.82480.8278
  • a Days of antibiotic therapy included the use of any antibiotics comprising an aminoglycoside, a carbapenem, a cephalosporin, a fluoroquinolone, penicillin, or vancomycin in the preceding 12 months.

  • b Data are for 5,357 patients. Abbreviations: ACH, acute-care hospital; CCI, Charlson’s comorbidity index; CI, confidence interval; ITCFs, intermediate-term care facilities; LTCFs, long-term care facilities; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; OR, odds ratio; ROC, receiver operating curve; PEG, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; VRE, vancomycin-resistant enterococci.