TABLE 2

Univariate analysis of epidemiologic and clinical risk factors for VRE colonization in ACH, ITCFs, and LTCFsd

CharacteristicValue(s) for patients in:
ACH (n = 2,956)ITCFs (n = 1,244)LTCFs (n = 1,157)
VRE positive
(n = 419)
VRE negative
(n = 2,537)
P1VRE positive
(n = 95)
VRE negative
(n = 1,149)
P2VRE positive
(n = 9)
VRE negative
(n = 1,148)
P3
Demographics
    Median (IQR) age (yr)75 (63–83)73 (62–82)0.05b74 (64–80)73 (63–80)0.83b75 (60–76)72 (61–82)0.60b
    No. (%) of patients >65 yr of age301 (71.8)1,688 (66.5)0.0368 (71.6)797 (69.4)0.656 (66.7)747 (65.1)1.00c
    No. (%) of male patients247 (59.0)1,379 (54.4)0.0860 (63.2)578 (50.3)0.026 (66.7)606 (52.8)0.51c
Comorbidities
    Median (IQR) CCI4 (2–6)3 (1–6)<0.0013 (2–5)3 (1–4)<0.0014 (1–5)2 (1–4)0.48
    No. (%) of patients with CCI of >5144 (34.4)657 (25.9)<0.00115 (15.8)131 (11.4)0.202 (22.2)146 (12.7)0.32c
    No. (%) of patients with the following:
        Congestive cardiac failure94 (22.4)390 (15.4)<0.00116 (16.8)80 (7.0)<0.011 (11.1)83 (7.2)0.49c
        Chronic pulmonary disease56 (13.4)317 (12.5)0.6214 (14.7)85 (7.4)0.012 (22.2)88 (7.7)0.15c
        Peptic ulcer disease41 (9.8)178 (7.0)0.056 (6.3)50 (4.4)0.43c0 (0.0)66 (5.8)1.00c
        Peripheral vascular disease81 (19.3)239 (9.4)<0.00181 (19.3)239 (9.4)<0.00117 (16.4)273 (11.9)0.17
        Renal disease175 (41.8)731 (28.8)<0.00135 (36.8)221 (19.2)<0.0012 (22.2)174 (15.2)0.63c
        Hemodialysis50 (28.6)121 (16.6)<0.00113 (37.1)56 (25.3)0.140 (0.0)14 (8.1)1.00c
No. (%) of patients with the following indwelling
devices:
    Central venous line72 (17.2)248 (9.8)<0.00112 (12.6)65 (5.7)<0.010 (0.0)11 (1.0)1.00c
    Arterial line119 (28.4)482 (19.0)<0.00114 (14.7)122 (10.6)0.220 (0.0)18 (1.6)1.00c
    Peripheral line413 (98.6)2,353 (92.8)<0.00190 (94.7)975 (84.9)<0.019 (100.0)439 (38.2)<0.001c
    Peripherally inserted central catheter45 (10.7)96 (3.8)<0.00118 (18.9)64 (5.6)<0.0010 (0.0)13 (1.1)1.00c
    Dialysis line60 (14.3)156 (6.2)<0.00113 (13.7)59 (5.1)<0.010 (0.0)15 (1.3)1.00c
    Tracheostomy32 (7.6)120 (4.7)0.0111 (11.6)34 (3.0)<0.0011 (11.1)111 (10.0)0.60c
    Endotracheal tube72 (17.2)369 (14.5)0.1617 (17.9)152 (13.2)0.200 (0.0)21 (1.8)1.00c
    Nasogastric tube179 (42.7)724 (28.5)<0.00133 (34.7)248 (21.6)<0.018 (88.9)428 (37.3)<0.01c
    Chest tube8 (1.9)63 (2.5)0.482 (2.1)11 (1.0)0.26c0 (0.0)3 (0.3)1.00c
    PEG tube86 (20.5)271 (10.7)<0.00110 (10.5)72 (6.3)0.113 (33.3)71 (6.2)0.02c
    Suprapubic catheter1 (0.2)15 (0.6)0.72c1 (1.1)4 (0.4)0.33c0 (0.0)17 (1.5)1.00c
    Indwelling urinary catheter199 (47.5)809 (31.9)<0.00150 (52.6)397 (34.6)<0.0014 (44.4)179 (15.6)0.04c
    Colostomy14 (3.3)30 (1.2)<0.012 (2.1)11 (1.0)0.26c0 (0.0)10 (0.9)1.00c
Details of current and prior hospital admissions
    Median (IQR) length of stay (days)15 (9–30)9 (6–16)<0.001b20 (10–36)22 (11–37)0.19b691 (139–2,407)503 (223–1,665)0.69b
    No. (%) of subsidized patients404 (96.4)2,305 (90.9)<0.00186 (90.5)1,044 (90.9)0.919 (100.0)1,147 (99.9)1.00c
    No. (%) of patients with prior ICU admission28 (6.7)88 (3.5)<0.0122 (23.2)143 (12.5)<0.010 (0.0)28 (2.4)1.00c
    No. (%) of patients with prior admission to ACH
        None157 (37.5)1,440 (56.8)<0.0012 (2.1)85 (7.4)0.081 (11.1)695 (60.5)<0.01c
        Study ACH262 (62.5)1,097 (43.2)<0.00146 (48.4)588 (51.2)0.086 (66.7)227 (19.8)
        Other ACHs47 (49.5)476 (41.4)2 (22.2)226 (19.7)
    No. of prior admissions to ACH
        Median (IQR)2 (1–4)1 (1–3)<0.001b2 (1–3)1 (1–2)<0.001b3 (2–4)1 (1–2)<0.01b
        Range1–201–251–91–191–81–10
No. (%) patients using the following medications:
    Antacid11 (2.6)67 (2.6)0.994 (4.2)55 (4.8)1.00c0 (0.0)17 (1.5)1.00c
    Proton pump inhibitors364 (86.9)1,802 (71.0)<0.00177 (81.1)723 (62.9)<0.0017 (77.8)488 (42.5)0.04c
    H2 antagonists74 (17.7)354 (14.0)0.056 (6.3)164 (14.3)0.034 (44.4)189 (16.5)0.05c
    Corticosteroids94 (22.4)520 (20.5)0.3723 (24.2)166 (14.5)0.013 (33.3)118 (10.3)0.06c
    Aminoglycosides187 (44.6)784 (30.9)<0.00124 (25.3)139 (12.1)<0.0015 (55.6)114 (9.9)<0.01c
    Carbapenems140 (33.4)345 (13.6)<0.00128 (29.5)107 (9.3)<0.0011 (11.1)49 (4.3)0.33c
    Cephalosporins199 (47.5)738 (29.1)<0.00149 (51.6)344 (29.9)<0.0014 (44.4)133 (11.6)0.02c
    Fluoroquinolones139 (33.2)471 (18.6)<0.00143 (45.3)276 (24.0)<0.0017 (77.8)237 (20.6)<0.001c
    Penicillin367 (87.6)1,738 (68.5)<0.00180 (84.2)645 (56.1)<0.0019 (100.0)590 (51.4)<0.01c
    Vancomycin267 (63.7)771 (30.4)<0.00140 (42.1)170 (14.8)<0.0016 (66.7)96 (8.4)<0.001c
No. (%) patients with the following no. of days of
antibiotic therapya:
    None11 (2.6)468 (18.4)<0.0013 (3.2)315 (27.4)<0.001c0 (0.0)437 (38.1)0.06c
    1–318 (4.3)238 (9.4)1 (1.0)84 (7.3)0 (0.0)9 (0.8)
    4–742 (10.0)428 (16.9)5 (5.3)125 (10.9)0 (0.0)89 (7.7)
    >7348 (83.1)1,403 (55.3)84 (88.4)595 (51.8)9 (100.0)606 (52.8)
    Unknown2 (2.1)30 (2.6)0 (0.0)7 (0.6)
Surgery, wounds, and ulcers
    No. (%) patients with surgery in the past:
        30 days171 (40.8)854 (33.7)<0.0121 (22.1)262 (22.8)0.881 (11.1)19 (1.7)0.15c
        90 days218 (52.0)1,036 (40.8)<0.00160 (63.2)518 (45.1)<0.012 (22.2)50 (4.4)0.06c
        180 days240 (57.3)1,140 (44.9)<0.00166 (69.5)600 (52.2)<0.012 (22.2)91 (7.9)0.16c
        365 days252 (60.1)1,262 (49.7)<0.00168 (71.6)635 (55.3)<0.012 (22.2)179 (15.6)0.64c
    No. (%) patients with a wound259 (61.8)903 (35.6)<0.00165 (68.4)637 (55.4)0.017 (77.8)413 (36.0)0.01c
    No. (%) patients with a skin ulcer169 (40.3)479 (18.9)<0.00137 (39.0)229 (19.9)<0.0015 (55.6)196 (17.1)0.01c
Prior carriage of antimicrobial-resistant organism
    VRE55 (13.1)39 (1.5)<0.0017 (7.4)13 (1.1)<0.001c1 (11.1)29 (2.5)0.21c
    CRE6 (1.4)30 (1.2)0.672 (2.1)5 (0.4)0.09c0 (0.0)2 (0.2)1.00c
    MRSA180 (43.0)450 (17.7)<0.00129 (30.5)191 (16.6)<0.015 (55.6)131 (11.4)<0.01c
  • a Days of antibiotic therapy included the use of any antibiotics comprising an aminoglycoside, a carbapenem, a cephalosporin, a fluoroquinolone, penicillin, or vancomycin in the preceding 12 months.

  • b Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

  • c Fisher’s exact test.

  • d Abbreviations: ACH, acute-care hospital; CCI, Charlson's comorbidity index; CRE, carbapenem-resistant enterococci; ITCFs, intermediate-term care facilities; IQR, interquartile range; LTCFs, long-term care facilities; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; PEG, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; VRE, vancomycin-resistant enterococci. P1, statistical test between VRE-positive and -negative patients in acute-care hospital; P2, statistical test between VRE-positive and -negative patients in intermediate-term care facilities; P3, statistical test between VRE-positive and -negative patients in long-term care facilities.