TABLE 4

Multivariable logistic regression analysis of epidemiologic and clinical risk factors for VRE colonization in the ACH and ITCFsb

CharacteristicACH (n = 2,956)ITCFs (n = 1,244)
OR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)P
Demographics
    Age (yr)1.01 (1.00–1.01)0.191.00 (0.98–1.02)0.82
    Male1.10 (0.87–1.39)0.441.53 (0.96–2.46)0.08
    Yr of screening
        2014ReferenceReference
        20150.64 (0.49–0.83)<0.011.73 (0.94–3.19)0.08
        20160.35 (0.26–0.47)<0.0011.27 (0.66–2.43)0.47
Comorbidities and prior carriage of antimicrobial-resistant
organism
    CCI > 50.89 (0.69–1.16)0.390.82 (0.42–1.59)0.56
    Prior carriage of VRE6.29 (3.86–10.25)<0.0013.45 (1.16–10.28)0.03
    Prior carriage of MRSA1.87 (1.44–2.43)<0.0011.47 (0.88–2.45)0.14
Details of current and prior hospital admissions
    Length of stay >14 days1.71 (1.32–2.21)<0.0010.51 (0.32–0.84)<0.01
    Prior admission to ACH
        NoneReferenceReference
        Study ACH1.15 (0.89–1.51)0.291.73 (0.37–8.02)0.49
        Other ACHs2.52 (0.54–11.78)0.24
    No. of beds per room
        1ReferenceReference
        2–41.54 (0.94–2.53)0.090.27 (0.04–1.67)0.16
        5–81.79 (1.24–2.57)<0.010.29 (0.07–1.14)0.08
        >82.12 (1.24–3.62)<0.010.42 (0.10–1.73)0.23
Medication use
    Proton pump inhibitors1.61 (1.16–2.22)<0.011.73 (0.98–3.08)0.06
No. of days of antibiotic therapya
    0ReferenceReference
    1–32.93 (1.34–6.41)<0.010.81 (0.08–8.10)0.86
    4–73.35 (1.67–6.71)<0.013.45 (0.79–15.04)0.10
    >74.44 (2.32–8.51)<0.0017.80 (2.35–25.87)<0.01
    Unknown3.61 (0.55–23.57)0.18
Surgery and ulcer
    Surgery in the past 90 days1.45 (1.14–1.85)<0.011.62 (1.00–2.62)0.05
    Presence of a skin ulcer1.65 (1.27–2.13)<0.0011.99 (1.22–3.24)<0.01
Indwelling devices
    Peripheral line1.43 (0.60–3.38)0.421.26 (0.45–3.49)0.66
    Dialysis line1.24 (0.84–1.83)0.271.36 (0.65–2.87)0.41
    PEG tube0.86 (0.62–1.18)0.351.28 (0.58–2.82)0.54
    Indwelling urinary catheter1.15 (0.91–1.47)0.251.54 (0.94–2.51)0.08
  • a Days of antibiotic therapy included the use of any antibiotics comprising an aminoglycoside, a carbapenem, a cephalosporin, a fluoroquinolone, penicillin, or vancomycin in the preceding 12 months.

  • b Abbreviations: ACH, acute-care hospital; CCI, Charlson’s comorbidity index; CI, confidence interval; ITCFs, intermediate-term care facilities; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; OR, odds ratio; PEG, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; VRE, vancomycin-resistant enterococci.