TABLE 1

Baseline characteristicsa

Patient baseline characteristicValue(s)
VPT
(n = 366)
VC
(n= 1,734)
PVPT
(n = 366)
VM
(n = 392)
P
Age ± SD56.7 ± 16.858.6 ± 17.40.07256.7 ± 16.858.1 ± 15.50.250
No. (%) of males189 (51.6)938 (54.1)0.392189 (51.6)221 (56.4)0.191
Body weight, kg ± SD87.9 ± 32.582.1 ± 87.90.00287.9 ± 32.583.6 ± 32.50.055
ICU location (%)<0.0001<0.0001
    MICU105 (28.7)829 (47.8)105 (28.7)249 (63.5)
    SICU248 (67.8)523 (30.2)248 (67.8)104 (26.5)
    NNICU13 (3.6)382 (22.0)13 (3.6)39 (9.9)
APACHE II [IQR]16.02 [12.02–20.01]16.01 [12.02–20.01]0.85516.02 [12.02–20.01]17.01 [13.02–21.01]0.043
Charlson score [IQR]3 [1–5]3 [1–6]0.1413 [1–5]3 [2–6]0.005
No. (%) with sepsis205 (56.0)688 (39.7)<0.0001205 (56.0)213 (54.3)0.643
No. (%) with mechanical ventilation189 (51.6)913 (52.7)0.724189 (51.6)203 (51.8)0.968
No. (%) with SBP < 90 mm Hg271 (74.0)1097 (63.3)<0.0001271 (74.0)285 (72.7)0.677
No. (%) with vasopressor use187 (51.1)783 (45.2)0.038187 (51.1)218 (55.6)0.213
No. (%) with nephrotoxin exposure
    No. of concomitant nephrotoxins ≥ 1278 (76.0)1,353 (78.0)0.387278 (76.0)324 (82.7)0.023
    No. of concomitant nephrotoxins ≥ 2152 (41.5)741 (42.7)0.672152 (41.5)179 (45.7)0.252
    No. of concomitant nephrotoxins ≥ 363 (17.2)289 (16.7)0.79963 (17.2)73 (18.6)0.613
Baseline WBC [IQR]15.5 [11.2–21.4]12.8 [8.9–18.3]<0.000115.5 [11.2–21.4]14.3 [9.4–20.3]0.747
Baseline CrCl [IQR]65.5 [46.8–94.0]69.0 [47.0–90.0]0.90265.5 [46.8–94.0]65.0 [46.0–88.0]0.185
No. (%) with CHF67 (18.3)457 (26.4)0.00167 (18.3)101 (25.8)0.013
No. (%) with COPD123 (33.6)623 (35.9)0.399123 (33.6)128 (32.7)0.780
No. (%) with diabetes86 (23.5)341 (19.7)0.09886 (23.5)80 (20.4)0.304
No. (%) with severe hepatitis21 (5.7)73 (4.2)0.19921 (5.7)41 (10.5)0.018
Initial vancomycin dose (mg) per 24 h [IQR]2,000 [1,750–3,000]2,000 [1,500–3,000]0.0872,000 [1,750–3,000]2,000 [1,500–2,500]0.002
Initial vancomycin trough (μg/ml) [IQR]12.0 [8.1–18.0]11.6 [7.9–17]0.03412.0 [8.1–18.0]12.0 [8.2–18.1]0.804
No. of days of antibiotic therapy [IQR]4.0 [3.0–5.0]3.0 [3.0–5.0]0.6434.0 [3.0–5.0]3.0 [2.0–5.75]0.236
  • a P values are shown for comparisons made separately between VPT and VC and between VPT and VM. Abbreviations: CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CrCl, creatinine clearance; IQR, interquartile range; MICU, medical intensive care unit; NNICU, neurosurgical/neurological intensive care unit; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SICU, surgical/burn/trauma intensive care unit; VC, vancomycin plus cefepime; VM, vancomycin plus meropenem; VPT, vancomycin plus piperacillin-tazobactam; WBC, white blood cell count.