TABLE 3

Variants of ART resistance validated and candidate mutations in Ghanaian isolates

RegionMutation typeReferencesPreviously reported mutationsMutations in Ghanaian isolates (n)aStudy sitesb
Southeast AsiaValidated ART resistance mutations3, 8, 11N458Y
M476IM476I (1), M476V (1)Wa, Begoro
Y493H
R539TR539I (5)Begoro, Wa, Sunyani, Hohoe
I543TI543I (1), I543S (1), I543V (1)Navrongo, Sunyani, Hohoe
R561HR561P (1), R561R (1)Sunyani, Hohoe
C580YC580V (1)Cape Coast
Sub-Saharan AfricaShared mutations in African parasites10, 1214, 1618, 28, 29, 3739C469CC469C (3), C469R (1)Wa, Cape Coast
S522CS522R (1)Wa
C532SC532S (1)Begoro
V534I, V534LV534V (2)Cape Coast, Sunyani
P553LP553P (1)Accra
A578SA578S (2), A578A (1), A578P (1)Begoro, Sunyani, Wa
N585KN585H (1), N585N (1)Hohoe, Navrongo
V589IV589G (1)Cape Coast
M608LM608L (1)Cape Coast
E612DE612D (3)Cape Coast, Sunyani
Q613LQ613L (2), Q613P (1), Q613R (1)Navrongo, Begoro, Cape Coast
N629YN629Y (1)Cape Coast
  • a n is the number of isolates with the mutation. Mutations in boldface font are the same mutations as published. —, not detected.

  • b Study sites in boldface font are where the published mutations were detected.