Table 2

Susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with pneumococcal infections in 11 Asian countriesc

CountryNo. of cities (no. of hospitals)No. of isolates (invasivea/meningeal isolates)Resistance to:Co-trimoxazole
PenicillinCeftriaxone
Nonmeningeal isolatesMeningeal isolatesNonmeningeal isolatesMeningeal isolatesErythromycinLevofloxacinMoxifloxacinGatifloxacinCiprofloxacinClindamycin
MIC50 (μg/ml)MIC90 (μg/ml)% I% RMIC50 (μg/ml)MIC90 (μg/ml)% RMIC50 (μg/ml)MIC90 (μg/ml)% I% RMIC50 (μg/ml)MIC90 (μg/ml)% I% RMIC50 (μg/ml)MIC90 (μg/ml)% I% RMIC90 (μg/ml)% I% RMIC90 (μg/ml)% I% RMIC90 (μg/ml)% I% RMIC90 (μg/ml)% I% RMIC90 (μg/ml)% I% RMIC90 (μg/ml)% I% R
China8 (14)642 (33/5)1411.02.20.12260.00.5211.58.00.06220.020.0>128>128096.410.30.20.250.300.50.304NA26.5>320.592.4>32/6012.773.4
Hong Kong1 (2)196 (8/0)0.2521.50NAbNANA0.513.16.6NANANANA32128075.5202.60.122.00102.62NA7.1>321.549.516/3047.763.3
India2 (3)23 (NA/NA)<0.03100NANANA<0.030.54.40NANANANA<0.128017.41000.25001002NA00.2504.416/3048.791.3
Japan1 (1)18 (0/0)0.5100NANANA0.5100NANANANA21285.661.12000.12000.25002NA0>32038.98/15255.622.2
South Korea8 (13)327 (70/12)121.90.31283.30.511.31.90.5141.70321284.077.720.64.60.121.50.910.64.32NA9.5>320.668.232/60813.555.4
Malaysia7 (9)165 (118/13)<0.030.500<0.03123.1<0.030.500.7<0.030.57.70<0.12640.632.71000.12000.50.602NA7.31015.28/15218.221.8
Philippines5 (5)118 (49/3)<0.030.0600<0.03<0.030<0.030.1200.9<0.03<0.0300<0.120.250.94.4100.90.1200.90.500.92NA7.90.120.93.52/3827.06.1
Sri Lanka1 (1)19 (9/0)1200NANANA1221.10NANANANA32>128079.01000.12001004NA10.5>325.342.132/60826.363.2
Taiwan3 (3)231 (30/0)120.40NANANA0.513.51.3NANANANA321282.284.922.66.50.122.21.710.95.24NA12.6>322.655.016/30416.961.9
Thailand1 (2)212 (24/1)0.2520.50NANA1000.1211.40NANA000.5647.144.322.80.50.1200.50.500.52NA9.9>321.920.38/15225.546.7
Vietnam3 (7)233 (24/6)120.90221000.512.61.81183.30641282.280.71000.12000.50.902NA2.2>321.760.132/6086.984.6
Total40 (60)2,184 (365/40)0.523.90.70.5257.50.514.93.70.25130.00.132>1281.972.720.71.70.250.70.40.50.41.54NA13.4>321.158.132/60815.059.3
  • a Invasive strains were isolated from sterile sites such as blood, CSF, pleural fluid, ascites, and joint fluid in patients with pneumococcal infections.

  • b NA, not available.

  • c The MIC breakpoints for pneumococcal isolates were determined according to the CLSI guidelines (4). For ciprofloxacin, isolates with MICs of ≥4 μg/ml were determined as resistant (23).