Table 3

Changing trends in penicillin and erythromycin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with pneumococcal infections in Asian countries

CountryMIC90 of penicillin (μg/ml) by yr and isolate type (n)% penicillin-nonsusceptible strains (I/R) by yr and isolate type (n)MIC90 of erythromycin (μg/ml) by yr and isolate type (n)% erythromycin-resistant strains by yr and isolate type (n)
1996–1997,a clinical (996)1998–1999,b carriage (1,105)2000–2001,c clinical (685)2008–2009, clinical (2,184)1996–1997,a clinical (996)d1998–1999,b carriage (1,105)d2000–2001,c clinical (685)d2008–2009, clinical2000–2001,c clinical (685)2008–2009, clinical (2,184)1996–1997,a clinical (996)1998–1999,b carriage (1,105)2000–2001,c clinical (685)2008–2009, clinical (2,184)
Previous breakpoint (2,184)dRevised breakpoint (2,144)e
China0.060.06249.8/013.4/019.8/23.440.0/31.611.2/2.2>32>12835.271.073.996.4
Hong KongNAfNA42NA/NANA/NA24.1/43.836.2/20.41.5/0>32128NANA76.875.5
India0.060.060.0313.8/012.8/07.8/030.4/00/00.128001.317.4
Japan4NANA138.4/26.9NA/NANA/NA77.8/00/0NA12867.9NANA61.1
South Korea824224.3/55.454.5/31.39.7/54.858.1/19.01.9/0.3>3212874.677.880.677.7
Malaysia0.060.0620.56.0/3.08.4/4.99.1/29.524.2/2.40/0>32643.011.434.132.7
PhilippinesNA0.020.250.06NA/NA2.1/027.3/06.8/0.90/0160.25NA018.24.4
Sri Lanka0.50.92241.2/070.6/5.971.4/14.389.5/10.50/08>12817.010.216.779.0
Taiwan81429.3/29.443.5/47.824.6/38.658.9/14.70.4/0>3212889.1NA86.084.9
Thailand10.752235.7/22.241.8/3.826.9/26.946.2/10.90.5/0166432.532.836.544.3
VietnamNA1.54228.2/32.658.2/12.220.6/71.461.4/17.60.9/0>3212865.287.592.180.7
    TotalNANA4219.5/23.147.0/8.822.7/31.344.9/18.83.9/0.7>16>12846.136.153.172.7
  • a Data are from the work of Song et al. (22). The MIC90 of erythromycin for pneumococcal isolates from this study was not available.

  • b Data are from the work of Lee et al. (14). The MIC90 of erythromycin for pneumococcal isolates from this study was not available.

  • c Data are from the work of Song et al. (23).

  • d The MIC was determined according to the previous susceptibility breakpoints for penicillin (I, 0.12 to 1 μg/ml, and R, ≥2 μg/ml).

  • e The MIC was determined according to the revised susceptibility breakpoints for penicillin (I, 4 μg/ml, and R, ≥8 μg/ml in nonmeningeal isolates) in the CLSI guidelines. Data for meningeal isolates (n = 40) from this study were not included in this column.

  • f NA, not available.