Table 3

Post hoc parameter estimates of the final model describing piperaquine population pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malariaa

GroupCL/F (liters/h/kg)VD/F (liters/kg)t1/2 (days)Tmax (h)Cmax (ng/ml)AUC0-92 (μg · h/ml)Predicted concn (ng/ml)
Day 7Day 28
Total1.30 (0.955–1.66)664 (492–912)20.2 (17.4–24.1)3.06 (2.62–4.05)244 (173–344)25,300 (19,600–32,400)28.1 (20.5–34.2)10.3 (8.61–14.7)
Pregnant1.28 (0.955–1.59)529 (464–708)17.5 (16.2–19.4)3.14 (2.84–3.84)291 (194–362)27,400 (21,000–32,400)28.8 (23.6–34.6)10.3 (9.18–14.4)
Nonpregnant1.32 (0.987–1.85)829 (655–1,110)24.0 (22.0–26.1)3.04 (2.36–4.13)216 (139–276)23,400 (17,400–35,100)22.7 (17.6–32.8)10.3 (8.06–14.9)
    P value0.599<0.001<0.0010.4210.0350.490.0850.893
  • a Data are for 24 pregnant and 24 nonpregnant women. Post hoc estimates were calculated as median values (interquartile ranges) from empirical Bayes estimates, and statistical differences were estimated with a nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. CL, elimination clearance; F, oral bioavailability; VD, apparent total volume of distribution (VC/F + VP1/F + VP2/F); t1/2, terminal elimination half-life; Tmax, predicted time to peak concentration; Cmax, predicted peak concentration; AUC0-92, area under the concentration-time curve from time point 0 to day 92.