Table 3

Risk factor analysis for ESBL-E carriage in 151 volunteers (2010)

ParameterValue for the parameter (no. [%])Univariate OR (95% CI)aPb
Noncarriers (n = 143)Carriers (n = 8)
Sociodemographic data
    Gender
        Male72 (50.3)2 (25.0)1.00.28
        Female71 (49.7)6 (75.0)3.0 (0.5–31.6)
    Age (yr)
        20 to 3574.0 (51.7)1 (12.5)1.00.06
        36 to 8369.0 (48.3)7 (87.5)7.4 (0.9–342.3)
    Marital status
        Single12 (8.4)1 (12.5)1.00.52
        Couple131 (91.6)7 (87.5)0.6 (0.1–31.3)
    No. of children
        0 to 484 (58.7)2 (25.0)1.00.08
        5 to 1559 (41.3)6 (75.0)4.2 (0.7–44.3)
Household
    Location
        Hamlet 182 (57.3)3 (37.5)1.00.26
        Hamlet 233 (23.1)4 (50.0)3.3 (0.5–23.6)
        Hamlet 315 (10.5)0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0–14.2)
        Hamlet 413 (9.1)1 (12.5)2.1 (0.0–28.3)
    No. of inhabitants/household
        2 to 675 (52.4)4 (50.0)1.01.00
        7 to 1268 (47.6)4 (50.0)1.1 (0.2–6.2)
    Animals in the household
        Presence109 (76.2)6 (75.0)0.9 (0.2–9.9)1.00
        Dogs54 (37.8)1 (12.5)0.2 (0.0–1.9)0.26
        Chickens100 (69.9)6 (75.0)1.3 (0.2–13.5)1.00
Lifestyle
    Drinking waterc
        River57 (41.3)2 (25.0)0.5 (0.0–2.8)0.47
        Cove52 (37.7)3 (37.5)1.0 (0.1–5.3)1.00
        Tap water87 (63.0)6 (75.0)1.8 (0.3–18.4)0.71
    Duty
        Hunting70 (49.0)2 (25.0)0.3 (0.0–2.0)0.28
        Fishing118 (82.5)7 (87.5)1.5 (0.2–69.5)1.00
        Manioc culture130 (90.9)7 (87.5)0.7 (0.1–33.9)0.55
        Cooking92 (64.3)7 (87.5)3.9 (0.5–178.1)0.26
        Cachiri preparing74 (51.7)6 (75.0)2.8 (0.5–29.1)0.28
        Pirogue driver83 (58.0)4 (50.0)0.7 (0.1–4.1)0.72
        Community worker7 (4.9)1 (12.5)2.7 (0.1–27.2)0.36
        Babysitting children of ≤5 years of age99 (69.2)8 (100.0)3.1 (0.4–143.0)0.43
    Travel outside Trois-Sauts during the past yeard124 (86.7)6 (75.0)0.5 (0.1–5.0)0.31
    Having a child at school outside Trois-Sautsd36 (25.2)3 (37.5)1.8 (0.3–9.7)0.43
Medical history during the past yeare
    Pregnancy5 (7.2)0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0–14.6)1.00
    Hospitalization17 (12.0)0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0–4.7)0.60
    Surgery5 (3.5)0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0–21.9)1.00
    Serious medical event14 (9.9)1 (12.5)1.3 (0.0–11.4)0.58
    H1N1 vaccination56 (39.4)2 (25.0)0.5 (0.0–3.0)0.49
    Antibiotic use52 (36.6)3 (37.5)1.0 (0.2–5.6)1.00
    Antibiotic use among relativesf126 (88.1)6 (75.0)0.4 (0.1–4.4)0.26
  • a OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval. For the parameter age, multivariate analysis was performed using the adjusted P value for multiple testing by the Holm's method; the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1 for the parameter 20 to 35 years of age and 7.5 (1.3 to 142.2) for the parameter 36 to 83 years of age.

  • b The univariate analysis was performed using the Pearson chi-square, Fisher's exact, Wilcoxon, or Welch test (α = 0.05).

  • c Data from five subjects are missing.

  • d The most frequent locations for travel and schools were Camopi, Saint-Georges, and Cayenne, all in French Guiana.

  • e Data from one subject are missing.

  • f Relatives include members of the same family living in the same household. In the case of multiple life partners, second/third wives and children were included as relatives even if they lived in a different household. The number of relatives ranged from 1 to 11.