Table 3

Substrates in which Ecl8ΔrarA/pACrarA-2 exhibits enhanced growth

Substrate typeFunctionSubstratea
AcriflavineDNA damageProflavine
AlkaloidCytokinesisSanguinarine
AlkaloidImidazoline binding site agonistHarmane
Cephalosporin, narrow spectrumCell wallCephalothin
Cephalosporin, expanded spectrumCell wallCefoxitin, cefuroxime
Cephalosporin, broad spectrumCell wallCefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, moxalactam
DiamideThiol cross-linking agentDiamide
FluoroquinoloneDNA damageCiprofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin
LactamCell wallAmoxicillin, azlocillin, carbenicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin G, phenethicillin, piperacillin
LincosamideProtein synthesisLincomycin
MacrolideProtein synthesisJosamycin
MinonucleosideProtein synthesisPuromycin
NitrofuranDNA damageFuraltadone
PhenothiazineAntihistaminePromethazine
PolymyxinMembranePolymyxin B
QuinolineDisinfectant8-Hydroxyquinoline, clioquinol, chloroxine
QuinoloneDNA damageNalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, pipemidic acid
SulfenamideAntifungalDichlofluanid
TetracyclineProtein synthesisMinocycline
OtherAntibacterialAmitriptyline, cobalt chloride,
Chelator1,10-Phenanthroline, 2,2′-dipyridyl
Cholinergic antagonistPridinol
DisinfectantAlexidine
MembraneDodine, domiphen bromide
  • a Novel substrates not previously associated with rarA overexpression are shown in bold.