Table 2

Activities of ceftaroline-avibactam, ceftaroline, and selected comparator antimicrobial agents when tested against Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa

Organism and antimicrobial agent (no. of isolates tested)MIC (μg/ml)% S/% Ra
MIC50MIC90RangeCLSIEUCAST
Enterobacteriaceae (4,908)
    Ceftaroline-avibactam0.060.25≤0.03–4
    Ceftaroline0.1232≤0.015–>3280.6/15.2 (80.6/15.2)b80.6/19.4
    Ceftriaxone≤0.068≤0.06–>887.0/12.187.0/12.1
    Ceftazidime0.128≤0.015–>3289.6/9.287.3/10.4
    Ampicillin-sulbactam8>32≤0.25–>3258.6/25.058.6/41.4
    Piperacillin-tazobactam216≤0.5–>6491.5/5.688.3/8.5
    Meropenem≤0.12≤0.12≤0.12–>898.3/1.598.5/1.1
    Gentamicin≤12≤1–>892.0/6.891.1/8.0
    Levofloxacin≤0.5>4≤0.5–>484.3/14.382.9/15.7
    Tigecyclinec0.251≤0.03–>498.3/0.294.4/1.7
Escherichia coli
    Total (1,375)
        Ceftaroline-avibactam≤0.030.06≤0.03–0.5
        Ceftaroline0.1216≤0.015–>3283.8/13.6 (83.8/13.6)b83.8/16.2
        Ceftriaxone≤0.068≤0.06–>889.2/10.689.2/10.6
        Ceftazidime0.122≤0.015–>3292.1/6.389.3/7.9
        Ampicillin-sulbactam8>32≤0.25–>3254.0/24.654.0/46.0
        Piperacillin-tazobactam28≤0.5–>6494.5/3.192.2/5.5
        Meropenem≤0.12≤0.12≤0.12–1100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
        Gentamicin≤1>8≤1–>888.2/11.387.6/11.8
        Levofloxacin≤0.5>4≤0.5–>470.1/29.570.0/29.9
        Tigecyclinec0.120.25≤0.03–1100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
    Non-ESBL phenotype (1,217)
        Ceftaroline-avibactam≤0.030.06≤0.03–0.25
        Ceftaroline0.060.5≤0.015–3294.3/2.9 (94.3/2.9)b94.3/5.7
        Ceftriaxone≤0.060.12≤0.06–1100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
        Ceftazidime0.120.25≤0.015–1100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
        Ampicillin-sulbactam432≤0.25–>3259.3/18.859.3/40.7
        Piperacillin-tazobactam24≤0.5–>6497.2/1.896.3/2.8
        Meropenem≤0.12≤0.12≤0.12–0.25100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
        Gentamicin≤14≤1–>890.6/8.990.0/9.4
        Levofloxacin≤0.5>4≤0.5–>477.2/22.577.0/22.8
        Tigecyclinec0.120.25≤0.03–1100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
    ESBL phenotype (158)
        Ceftaroline-avibactam0.060.12≤0.03–0.5
        Ceftaroline>32>320.12–>322.5/96.2 (2.5/96.2)b2.5/97.5
        Ceftriaxone>8>80.12–>85.7/92.45.7/92.4
        Ceftazidime16>320.25–>3231.0/54.47.0/69.0
        Ampicillin-sulbactam32>324–>3213.3/69.013.3/86.7
        Piperacillin-tazobactam8>641–>6473.4/13.360.8/26.6
        Meropenem≤0.12≤0.12≤0.12–1100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
        Gentamicin≤1>8≤1–>870.3/29.769.0/29.7
        Levofloxacin>4>4≤0.5–>415.8/82.915.8/84.2
        Tigecyclinec0.120.250.06–0.5100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
Klebsiella spp.d
    Total (1,964)
        Ceftaroline-avibactam0.060.12≤0.03–4
        Ceftaroline0.12>32≤0.015–>3283.6/14.2 (83.6/14.2)b83.6/16.4
        Ceftriaxone≤0.06>8≤0.06–>887.0/12.587.0/12.5
        Ceftazidime0.128≤0.015–>3289.8/9.587.8/10.2
        Ampicillin-sulbactam8>320.5–>3272.9/16.372.9/27.1
        Piperacillin-tazobactam232≤0.5–>6489.5/8.884.5/10.5
        Meropenem≤0.12≤0.12≤0.12–>896.3/3.496.6/2.7
        Gentamicin≤1≤1≤1–>893.8/4.493.0/6.2
        Levofloxacin≤0.52≤0.5–>490.1/8.988.7/9.9
        Tigecyclinec0.2510.06–>498.8/0.195.5/1.2
    Non-ESBL phenotype (1,689)
        Ceftaroline-avibactam0.060.12≤0.03–0.5
        Ceftaroline0.120.5≤0.015–897.0/0.7 (97.0/0.7)b97.0/3.0
        Ceftriaxone≤0.060.12≤0.06–1100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
        Ceftazidime0.120.25≤0.015–1100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
        Ampicillin-sulbactam4160.5–>3284.1/4.984.1/15.9
        Piperacillin-tazobactam28≤0.5–>6498.9/0.794.9/1.1
        Meropenem≤0.12≤0.12≤0.12–0.25100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
        Gentamicin≤1≤1≤1–>899.1/0.899.1/0.9
        Levofloxacin≤0.5≤0.5≤0.5–>498.4/0.997.5/1.6
        Tigecyclinec0.250.50.06–>499.2/0.196.6/0.8
    ESBL phenotype (275)
        Ceftaroline-avibactam0.120.5≤0.03–4
        Ceftaroline>32>320.12–>321.5/96.7 (1.5/96.7)b1.5/98.5
        Ceftriaxone>8>80.12–>87.3/88.77.3/88.7
        Ceftazidime32>320.12–>3227.6/68.013.4/72.5
        Ampicillin-sulbactam>32>322–>324.3/86.24.3/95.7
        Piperacillin-tazobactam>64>641–>6431.9/58.721.0/68.1
        Meropenem≤0.12>8≤0.12–>873.9/23.976.1/19.2
        Gentamicin2>8≤1–>862.0/26.855.8/38.0
        Levofloxacin>4>4≤0.5–>439.5/57.235.1/60.5
        Tigecyclinec0.520.06–496.7/0.089.1/3.3
Proteus mirabilis (230)
    Ceftaroline-avibactam0.060.120.03–0.5
    Ceftaroline0.120.250.03–>3293.0/3.9 (93.0/3.9)b93.0/7.0
    Ceftriaxone≤0.06≤0.06≤0.06–>897.4/2.297.4/2.2
    Ceftazidime0.060.120.03–4100.0/0.097.8/0.0
    Ampicillin-sulbactam18≤0.25–3290.4/2.690.4/9.6
    Piperacillin-tazobactam≤0.51≤0.5–>6499.6/0.499.6/0.4
    Meropenem≤0.06≤0.06≤0.06–0.5100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
    Gentamicin≤14≤1–>890.0/6.587.8/10.0
    Levofloxacin≤0.12>4≤0.12–>476.0/19.273.4/24.0
    Tigecyclinec240.12–>483.4/0.945.4/16.6
Enterobacter cloacae
    Total (379)
        Ceftaroline-avibactam0.120.25≤0.015–2
        Ceftaroline0.25>32≤0.015–>3272.8/23.7 (72.8/23.7)b72.8/27.2
        Ceftriaxone0.25>8≤0.06–>875.7/22.775.7/22.7
        Ceftazidime0.25>320.03–>3278.9/19.876.5/21.1
        Ampicillin-sulbactam16>321–>3234.6/43.334.6/65.4
        Piperacillin-tazobactam264≤0.5–>6483.1/8.480.7/16.9
        Meropenem≤0.06≤0.06≤0.06–>898.4/1.398.7/0.3
        Gentamicin≤1≤1≤1–>894.4/5.094.2/5.6
        Levofloxacin≤0.120.5≤0.12–>493.4/5.392.9/6.6
        Tigecyclinec0.250.50.12–498.4/0.096.0/1.6
    Ceftazidime susceptible (299)
        Ceftaroline-avibactam0.120.25≤0.015–1
        Ceftaroline0.250.5≤0.015–892.3/3.7 (92.3/3.7)b92.3/7.7
        Ceftriaxone0.250.5≤0.06–>896.0/2.796.0/2.7
        Ceftazidime0.250.50.03–4100.0/0.097.0/0.0
        Ampicillin-sulbactam16321–>3243.8/28.443.8/56.2
        Piperacillin-tazobactam24≤0.5–16100.0/0.099.3/0.0
        Meropenem≤0.06≤0.06≤0.06–0.25100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
        Gentamicin≤1≤1≤1–>899.0/1.098.7/1.0
        Levofloxacin≤0.120.25≤0.12–>498.0/1.097.7/2.0
        Tigecyclinec0.250.50.12–499.0/0.098.0/1.0
    Ceftazidime nonsusceptible (80)
        Ceftaroline-avibactam0.2510.06–2
        Ceftaroline>32>321–>320.0/98.8 (0.0/98.8)b0.0/100.0
        Ceftriaxone>8>82–>80.0/97.50.0/97.5
        Ceftazidime>32>328–>320.0/93.80.0/100.0
        Ampicillin-sulbactam>32>3216–>320.0/98.80.0/100.0
        Piperacillin-tazobactam64>641–>6420.0/40.011.3/80.0
        Meropenem≤0.060.5≤0.06–>892.5/6.393.8/1.3
        Gentamicin≤1>8≤1–>877.5/20.077.5/22.5
        Levofloxacin≤0.12>4≤0.12–>476.3/21.375.0/23.8
        Tigecyclinec0.2520.12–496.3/0.088.8/3.8
Enterobacter aerogenes (143)
    Ceftaroline-avibactam0.060.12≤0.015–0.5
    Ceftaroline0.1232≤0.015–>3284.6/14.7 (84.6/14.7)b84.6/15.3
    Ceftriaxone0.128≤0.06–>885.3/14.085.3/14.0
    Ceftazidime0.25160.03–>3286.0/11.984.6/14.0
    Ampicillin-sulbactam16>322–>3245.5/28.045.5/54.5
    Piperacillin-tazobactam432≤0.5–>6488.1/2.183.9/11.9
    Meropenem≤0.06≤0.06≤0.06–898.6/0.799.3/0.0
    Gentamicin≤1≤1≤1–>899.3/0.799.3/0.7
    Levofloxacin≤0.120.25≤0.12–>499.3/0.799.3/0.7
    Tigecyclinec0.250.50.12–499.3/0.095.8/0.7
Morganella morganii (308)
    Ceftaroline-avibactam≤0.030.12≤0.03–0.5
    Ceftaroline0.12>32≤0.015–>3270.5/26.9 (70.5/26.9)b70.5/29.5
    Ceftriaxone≤0.064≤0.06–>882.1/11.482.1/11.4
    Ceftazidime0.12160.03–>3281.5/14.376.3/18.5
    Ampicillin-sulbactam16321–>3219.8/45.519.8/80.2
    Piperacillin-tazobactam≤0.52≤0.5–>6496.1/2.396.1/3.9
    Meropenem≤0.12≤0.12≤0.12–0.25100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
    Gentamicin≤1>8≤1–>884.7/13.081.8/15.3
    Levofloxacin≤0.5>4≤0.5–>479.5/15.373.1/20.5
    Tigecyclinec0.510.12–>495.8/0.690.9/4.2
Citrobacter freundii (157)
    Ceftaroline-avibactam0.060.12≤0.015–2
    Ceftaroline0.25>320.12–>3273.9/25.5 (73.9/25.5)b73.9/26.1
    Ceftriaxone0.25>8≤0.06–>874.5/24.874.5/24.8
    Ceftazidime0.5>320.12–>3275.8/24.275.2/24.2
    Ampicillin-sulbactam8>322–>3263.7/28.763.7/36.3
    Piperacillin-tazobactam4>64≤0.5–>6478.3/10.274.5/21.7
    Meropenem≤0.06≤0.06≤0.06–>897.4/1.998.1/0.6
    Gentamicin≤12≤1–>892.4/7.090.4/7.6
    Levofloxacin≤0.122≤0.12–>492.4/7.086.6/7.6
    Tigecyclinec0.250.50.06–499.4/0.098.1/0.6
Citrobacter koseri (115)
    Ceftaroline-avibactam0.060.12≤0.015–1
    Ceftaroline0.120.25≤0.015–199.1/0.0 (99.1/0.0)b99.1/0.9
    Ceftriaxone≤0.060.12≤0.06–0.5100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
    Ceftazidime0.120.250.03–0.5100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
    Ampicillin-sulbactam28≤0.25–3296.5/0.996.5/3.5
    Piperacillin-tazobactam241–16100.0/0.095.7/0.0
    Meropenem≤0.06≤0.06≤0.06100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
    Gentamicin≤1≤1≤1–2100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
    Levofloxacin≤0.12≤0.12≤0.12–0.5100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
    Tigecyclinec0.120.250.06–0.5100.0/0.0100.0/0.0
Serratia marcescens (237)
    Ceftaroline-avibactam0.510.06–4
    Ceftaroline140.25–>3244.3/16.5 (44.3/16.5)b44.3/55.7
    Ceftriaxone0.251≤0.06–>891.1/8.091.1/8.0
    Ceftazidime0.250.50.03–>3297.5/2.196.6/2.5
    Ampicillin-sulbactam32>324–>3211.4/72.211.4/88.6
    Piperacillin-tazobactam24≤0.5–>6496.6/0.895.8/3.4
    Meropenem≤0.06≤0.06≤0.06–299.6/0.0100.0/0.0
    Gentamicin≤1≤1≤1–>898.3/1.798.3/1.7
    Levofloxacin≤0.120.5≤0.12–>497.0/0.895.4/3.0
    Tigecyclinec0.510.12–>498.7/0.896.2/1.3
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (213)
    Ceftaroline-avibactam4160.5–>32
    Ceftaroline16>321–>32
    Ceftazidime2320.5–>3283.1/11.383.1/16.9
    Piperacillin-tazobactam8>64≤0.5–>6476.1/11.776.1/23.9
    Meropenem0.58≤0.06–>879.8/15.079.8/7.5
    Gentamicin≤14≤1–>890.1/6.690.1/9.9
    Levofloxacin1>4≤0.12–>468.1/24.460.1/31.9
  • a Criteria as published by the CLSI (7) and EUCAST (9). S, susceptible; R, resistant.

  • b FDA breakpoints were applied (10).

  • c FDA breakpoints were applied (11).

  • d Includes Klebsiella oxytoca (493 strains) and K. pneumoniae (1,471 strains).