Table 1

Inhibition achieved by 20 antimalarial drugs in male and female gamete assays compared to untreated controlsa

DrugMale gametocyte exflagellation at 1 μMFemale gametocyte activation at 1 μMFemale gametocyte activation at 10 μM
Mean % inhibitionSEMMean % inhibitionSEMMean % inhibitionSEM
Amodiaquine*40.3710.68−1.421.1427.254.50
Artemether**45.656.781.164.719.9711.48
Dihydroartemisinin***80.275.875.632.859.364.26
Artesunate**66.959.196.815.5610.302.30
Artemisinin***62.000.43−5.744.0211.448.23
Azithromycin*39.7811.87−7.295.0912.956.92
DoxycyclineNS32.1011.594.098.3745.413.18
Halofantrine*22.153.12−5.627.46−0.899.63
Mefloquine (racemic)*51.4510.370.3111.1334.209.21
Mefloquine (+RS)*38.227.340.928.5630.574.65
PamaquineNS43.909.50−4.6210.1912.366.68
PrimaquineNS14.559.94−7.644.2417.7711.22
Pyrimethamine***93.533.93−7.724.907.436.52
PyronaridineNS14.036.6426.6214.0495.561.17
SulfadiazineNS−13.2128.861.2011.722.656.93
Thiostrepton*92.534.9523.3622.9197.850.46
RiboflavinNS15.2830.822.0712.09−0.178.84
AtovaquoneNS12.023.7412.315.3628.0511.33
Cycloguanil***96.571.74−0.769.5317.635.27
Methylene blue***98.391.6110.693.9295.821.99
  • a Data are mean % inhibition values with respect to DMSO carrier controls (n = 3) ± standard errors of the means (SEM). Asterisks beside compound names indicate the statistical significance of differences in % inhibition at 1 μM in both male and female assays as measured by unpaired Student's t test. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; NS, no significant difference.