Table 1

List of antibiotic resistance genes curated in the CARD within which citation, molecular sequence, protein structure, mechanism, and ARO classification details are provideda

Aminocoumarins
    Aminocoumarin-resistant DNA topoisomerases
        Aminocoumarin-resistant GyrB, ParE, ParY
Aminoglycosides
    Aminoglycoside acetyltransferases
        AAC(1), AAC(2′), AAC(3), AAC(6′)
    Aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases
        ANT(2″), ANT(3″), ANT(4′), ANT(6), ANT(9)
    Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases
        APH(2″), APH(3″), APH(3′), APH(4), APH(6), APH(7″), APH(9)
    16S rRNA methyltransferases
        ArmA, RmtA, RmtB, RmtC, Sgm
β-Lactams
    Class A β-lactamases
        AER, BLA1, CTX-M, KPC, SHV, TEM, etc.b
    Class B (metallo-)β-lactamases
        BlaB, CcrA, IMP, NDM, VIM, etc.b
    Class C β-lactamases
        ACT, AmpC, CMY, LAT, PDC, etc.b
    Class D β-lactamases
        OXA β-lactamaseb
    mecA (methicillin-resistant PBP2)
    Mutant porin proteins conferring antibiotic resistance
        Antibiotic-resistant Omp36, OmpF, PIB (por)
Genes modulating β-lactam resistance
    bla (blaI, blaR1) and mec (mecI, mecR1) operons
Chloramphenicol
    Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)
    Chloramphenicol phosphotransferase
Ethambutol
    Ethambutol-resistant arabinosyltransferase (EmbB)
Mupirocin
    Mupirocin-resistant isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases
        MupA, MupB
Peptide antibiotics
    Integral membrane protein MprF
Phenicol
    Cfr 23S rRNA methyltransferase
Rifampin
    Rifampin ADP-ribosyltransferase (Arr)
    Rifampin glycosyltransferase
    Rifampin monooxygenase
    Rifampin phosphotransferase
    Rifampin resistance RNA polymerase-binding proteins
        DnaA, RbpA
    Rifampin-resistant beta-subunit of RNA polymerase (RpoB)
Streptogramins
    Cfr 23S rRNA methyltransferase
    Erm 23S rRNA methyltransferases
        ErmA, ErmB, Erm(31), etc.d
    Streptogramin resistance ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux pumps
        Lsa, MsrA, Vga, VgaB
    Streptogramin Vgb lyase
    Vat acetyltransferase
Fluoroquinolones
    Fluoroquinolone acetyltransferase
    Fluoroquinolone-resistant DNA topoisomerases
        Fluoroquinolone-resistant GyrA, GyrB, ParC
    Quinolone resistance protein (Qnr)
Fosfomycin
    Fosfomycin phosphotransferases
        FomA, FomB, FosC
    Fosfomycin thiol transferases
        FosA, FosB, FosX
Glycopeptides
    VanA, VanB, VanD, VanR, VanS, etc.c
Lincosamides
    Cfr 23S rRNA methyltransferase
    Erm 23S rRNA methyltransferases
        ErmA, ErmB, Erm(31), etc.d
    Lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase (Lin)
Linezolid
    Cfr 23S rRNA methyltransferase
Macrolides
    Cfr 23S rRNA methyltransferase
    Erm 23S rRNA methyltransferases
        ErmA, ErmB, Erm(31), etc.d
    Macrolide esterases
        EreA, EreB
    Macrolide glycosyltransferases
        GimA, Mgt, Ole
    Macrolide phosphotransferases (MPH)
        MPH(2′)-I, MPH(2′)-II
    Macrolide resistance efflux pumps
        MefA, MefE, Mel
Streptothricin
    Streptothricin acetyltransferase (sat)
Sulfonamides
    Sulfonamide-resistant dihydropteroate synthases
        Sul1, Sul2, Sul3, sulfonamide-resistant FolP
Tetracyclines
    Mutant porin PIB (por) with reduced permeability
    Tetracycline inactivation enzyme TetX
    Tetracycline resistance major facilitator superfamily (MFS) efflux pumps
        TetA, TetB, TetC, Tet30, Tet31, etc.e
    Tetracycline resistance ribosomal protection proteins
        TetM, TetO, TetQ, Tet32, Tet36, etc.e
Efflux pumps conferring antibiotic resistance
    ABC antibiotic efflux pump
        MacAB-TolC, MsbA, MsrA,VgaB, etc.f
    MFS antibiotic efflux pump
        EmrD, EmrAB-TolC, NorB, GepA, etc.f
    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter
        MepA
    Resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux pump
        AdeABC, AcrD, MexAB-OprM, mtrCDE, etc.f
    Small multidrug resistance (SMR) antibiotic efflux pump
        EmrE
Genes modulating antibiotic efflux
    adeR, acrR, baeSR, mexR, phoPQ, mtrR, etc.g
  • a ARO, Antibiotic Resistance Ontology.

  • b Complete lists of β-lactamase families and individual β-lactamases can be found in the CARD.

  • c Glycopeptide resistance gene clusters include a number of genes encoding proteins with different functions, including sensors, regulators, and enzymes, all of which result in restructuring of the cell wall, providing resistance to glycopeptides. The full list of genes involved can be found in the CARD.

  • d Complete lists of Erm 23S rRNA methyltransferases can be found in the CARD.

  • e Complete lists of tetracycline resistance major facilitator superfamily (MFS) efflux pumps and ribosomal protection proteins can be found in the CARD.

  • f Complete lists of ATP-binding cassette (ABC), MFS, and resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) antibiotic efflux pumps can be found in the CARD.

  • g Complete lists of efflux regulatory proteins can be found in the CARD, including information on mutations conferring increased rates of antibiotic efflux.