Table 2

Major branches of the AROa

Major ARO branchScope
Determinant of Antibiotic Resistance (ARO:3000000)Antibiotic resistance genes, SNPs, or other molecular entities organized by target (e.g., aminocoumarin, glycopeptides, etc.) and mode of action (e.g., antibiotic inactivation, molecular bypass, etc.)
Mechanism of Antibiotic Resistance (ARO:1000002)Target alteration, target replacement, antibiotic inactivation, antibiotic efflux, antibiotic target protection, reduced permeability to antibiotic
Antibiotic Target (ARO:3000708)Targeted cell membrane components, protein or nucleotide synthesis machinery, enzymes, etc.
Antibiotic Molecule (ARO:1000003)Hierarchical classification of antibiotics (e.g., sulfonamide, β-lactam, glycopeptide antibiotics, etc.)
Inhibitor of Antibiotic Resistance (ARO:0000076)β-Lactamase and other inhibitors
Antibiotic Biosynthesis (ARO:3000082)Phosphonoacetaldehyde methyltransfererase, glycopeptide biosynthesis, macrolide biosynthesis, streptogramin biosynthesis, fosfomycin biosynthesis, aminocoumarin biosynthesis, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) mutase, phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase
Antibiotic Resistance Terminology (ARO:3000045)Ontological relationship types, bioinformatic model types, reference molecular sequence types, etc.
  • a ARO, Antibiotic Resistance Ontology. All major branches are part_of ARO:1000001, “process or component of antibiotic biology or chemistry.”