Table 3

Relationship types used within the AROa

Relationship typeDescriptionSource
is_aAn axiomatic relationship ontology term in which the subject is placed into a higher order classificationRO
part_ofA relationship ontology term in which the subject is but part of the objectRO
derives_fromA relationship ontology term in which the subject has its origins in the objectRO
regulatesA relationship ontology term in which the subject regulates expression of the objectARO
confers_resistance_toA relationship ontology term in which the subject confers antibiotic resistance to the objectARO
confers_resistance_to_drugA relationship ontology term in which the subject (usually a gene) confers clinically relevant resistance to a specific antibioticARO
targeted_byA relationship ontology term in which the subject is targeted by the object (usually a class of antibiotics)ARO
targeted_by_drugA relationship ontology term in which the subject is targeted by a specific antibioticARO
  • a ARO, Antibiotic Resistance Ontology; RO, Relation Ontology, a part of the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies resource (27). Descriptions are paraphrased.