TABLE 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of the two treatment groupsa

VariableValue for the groupP valueb
Combo (n = 50)VAN alone (n = 30)
Mean age (yr [±SD])51.6 ± 15.050.5 ± 16.80.772
Median LOS (days [IQR])20.5 (10.0–41.0)12.0 (7.8–28.8)0.027c
Median VAN therapy duration (days [IQR])23.5 (11.0–34.0)30.0 (11.0–44.0)0.281c
Median VAN serum level (mg/liter [IQR])d20.2 (16.2–23.2)17.5 (14.1–24.4)0.067c
No. of male participants (%)37 (74.0)17 (56.7)0.112
Race (no. of patients [%])0.531
    Caucasian18 (36.0)14 (46.7)
    Hispanic19 (38.0)8 (26.7)
    Othere13 (26.0)8 (26.7)
Comorbidities (no. of patients [%])
    Alcoholism7 (14.0)1 (3.3)0.097
    Cancer11 (22.0)4 (13.3)0.327
    Chronic lung disease4 (8.0)4 (13.3)0.448
    Congestive heart failure6 (12.0)2 (6.7)0.429
    Diabetes mellitus25 (50.0)13 (43.3)0.563
    Liver disease6 (12.0)6 (20.0)0.338
MRSA bacteremia risk factors (no. of patients [%])
    Cellulitis on admission2 (4.0)4 (13.3)0.190f
    Central venous catheter5 (10.0)5 (16.7)0.389
    Hemodialysis6 (12.0)6 (20.0)0.338
    Homelessness1 (2.0)0 (0.0)>0.999f
    Immunosuppression9 (18.0)3 (10.0)0.320
    Injection drug use9 (18.0)7 (23.3)0.566
    MRSA colonizationg10 (20.0)8 (26.7)0.493
    Previous health care exposure22 (44.0)12 (40.0)0.726
    Prior antibiotic exposureh4 (8.0)2 (6.7)>0.999f
    Skin ulcers on admission9 (18.0)1 (3.3)0.037
Origin of bacteremia (no. of patients [%])
    Endocarditis11 (22.0)11 (36.7)0.159
    Osteomyelitis11 (22.0)4 (13.3)0.327
    Skin and soft tissue infection5 (10.0)1 (3.3)0.402f
    Otheri20 (40.0)13 (43.3)0.770
    More than one source3 (6.0)1 (3.3)>0.999f
Source control (no. of patients [%])
    Removable source of infection11 (22.0)8 (26.7)0.637
    Removable source of infection retainedj2 (4.0)2 (6.7)0.602
Severity of illness markers
    ICU admission (no. of patients [%])21 (42.0)6 (20.0)0.039
    Ventilator use (no. of patients [%])13 (26.0)4 (13.3)0.169
    Median Pitt bacteremia score (IQR)1 (1–3)1 (0–2)0.238c
    Pitt bacteremia score of ≥4 (no. of patients [%])9 (18.0)4 (13.3)0.580
  • a LOS, length of stay; IQR, interquartile range; ICU, intensive care unit.

  • b P values were calculated by the likelihood ratio χ2 test, except where otherwise noted.

  • c Wilcoxon rank sum test.

  • d One patient in each treatment group did not have a vancomycin serum level documented in the electronic medical record. Both patients experienced microbiological eradication.

  • e Comprised of African American, Asian American/Pacific Islander and Native American/Alaskan Native, two or more races and unknown/declined to answer.

  • f Fisher's exact test.

  • g History of an MRSA infection or being a known MRSA carrier.

  • h Exposure to a β-lactam, fluoroquinolone, or VAN for ≥7 days within 30 days prior to infection.

  • i Comprised of catheter-related bloodstream infection, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, prosthesis, or bacteremia of unknown origin.

  • j Of the four patients for whom a removable source of infection was retained, none experienced microbiological failure.