TABLE 1

Univariate analysis of demographics, comorbidities, antimicrobial use, region of travel and birth, occupational and household exposure

Subject variableFrequency in ESC-R cases (%) (n = 91)Frequency in ESC-S controls (%) (n = 91)Odds ratio95% CIP value
Demographics + comorbidities
    Male sex30 (33)16 (18)2.311.51–4.620.018b
    Age < 30 or > 59 yrs66 (73)60 (66)1.360.72–2.570.336
    Immune suppression19 (20)10 (11)1.990.87–4.600.105b
    Charlson score ≥ 144 (48)34 (37)1.570.87–2.830.135b
    Active malignancy11 (13)9 (8)1.430.55–3.730.469
    Renal failure11 (13)9 (10)1.250.49–3.190.636
    McCabe score ≥ 2+78 (86)76 (84)1.180.53–2.650.681
    Indigenous7 (8)6 (7)1.180.38–3.660.774
    Heart disease7 (8)7 (8)1
    Long-term-care-facility resident1 (1)1 (1)1
    Smoker12 (13)14 (15)0.830.36–1.920.672
    Liver disease3 (3)4 (4)0.740.16–3.410.701
    Lung disease5 (5)7 (8)0.700.21–2.850.552
    Pregnant or postpartum3 (3)7 (8)0.410.10–1.630.206
Renal tract background
    Renal transplant8 (9)4 (4)2.10.61–7.220.241
    Anatomical or structural abnormality23 (25)15 (16)1.710.83–3.550.147b
    UTIs in past 12 mos (per UTI)cMedian = 1; IQR = 0–3Median = 0; IQR = 0–11.321.08–1.630.008b
    UTIs in lifetime (per UTI)cMedian = 2; IQR = 0–5Median = 2; IQR = 0–51.030.90–1.180.657
Antimicrobial use
    Any antimicrobials in past 12 mos69 (76)62 (68)1.470.76–2.810.249
    Trimethoprim ± sulfamethoxazole16 (17.58)6 (6.59)3.0221.13–8.120.028b
    Expanded-spectrum cephalosporin(s)7 (8)0NA0.014b
    Fluoroquinolone(s)7(8)3 (3)2.440.61–9.770.206
    β-Lactam + ß-lactamase inhibitor16 (17.58)11 (12.09)1.5520.68–3.560.300
    Carbapenem(s)3 (3.3)2 (2.2)1.5170.25–9.300.652
    Aminoglycoside(s)5 (5)4 (4)1.260.33–4.870.733
    Macrolide6 (6.59)5 (5.49)1.2140.36–4.130.756
    “Unknown” antimicrobial(s)35 (38)33 (36)1.10.60–2.000.759
    Narrow-spectrum cephalosporin(s)16 (17.58)15 (16.48)1.0810.50–2.340.844
    Narrow-spectrum penicillin(s)10 (10.99)14 (15.38)0.6790.28–1.620.383
Travel by regiona
    Any overseas travel28 (30.8)22 (24.18)1.390.72–2.680.32
    High-risk regions24 (26)14 (15)1.970.94–4.110.071b
    Indian subcontinent6 (6.59)1 (1.1)6.9280.75–53.870.09
    North America5 (5.49)2 (2.20)2.1990.49–13.690.264
    Africa + the Middle East3 (3.3)2 (2.2)1.5170.25–9.300.652
    Southeast Asia15 (16)13 (14)1.180.53–2.650.681
    South Pacific3 (3.30)3 (3.30)1
    Europe3 (3.30)5 (5.49)0.5860.14–2.530.474
    China4 (4.4)00.121
    Japan1 (1.1)00.500
Birth by region
    High-risk region18 (20)10 (11)2.00.87–4.600.105
    Indian subcontinent11 (13)2 (2)6.121.32–28.450.021b
    Australia + New Zealand58 (64)59 (65)0.950.52–1.750.877
    Europe15 (16)18 (20)0.800.38–1.710.564
    Southeast Asia3 (3)4 (4)0.740.16–3.410.701
    Africa + Middle East2 (2)4 (4)0.490.09–2.740.415
    China2 (2)00.497
    South Pacific03 (3)0.246
    Latin America01 (1)1.0
Occupation and household exposure
    Partner with recent ESC-R E. coli infection2 (2)Not assessed
    Occupational health care exposure10 (11)7 (8)1.480.54–4.080.447
    Pet cat or dog or both at home32 (35)33 (36)0.950.52–1.750.877
    Occupational animal exposure4 (4)5 (5)0.790.21–3.050.733
    Preschoolers at home (<5 yrs of age)7 (8)9 (10)0.760.27–2.130.601
Food consumption
    Any meat in past 12 mos89 (98)87 (98)2.050.37–11.460.415
    Poultry88 (97)83 (92)2.470.62–9.890.206
    Processed/preserved meats51 (56)52 (58)0.930.52–1.680.814
    Pork60 (66)63 (70)0.830.44–1.550.558
    Red meat76 (84)78 (88)0.720.31–1.660.433
  • a Destinations of travel by region were as follows: for the Indian subcontinent, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh; for North America, the United States and Canada; for Africa and the Middle East, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Sudan, Liberia, Turkey, and Afghanistan; for Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Burma, Indonesia, and The Philippines; for South Pacific, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Samoa, Cook Islands, and boat cruises through the South Pacific; for Europe, the United Kingdom, Italy, Holland, Portugal, and Poland; for China, China, Hong Kong, and Macau; for Japan, Japan. High-risk regions include the Indian subcontinent, Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and China regions.

  • b Entered into multivariate model.

  • c Infections were recorded numerically on a scale of 0 to 5+, with all 5+ results considered 5 for analysis. Summaries are presented as a median value and an interquartile range (IQR).