TABLE 1

Antiviral activity of chloroquine, chlorpromazine, loperamide, and lopinavir against MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and HCoV-229E-GFPa

CompoundMERS-CoVSARS-CoVHCoV-229E-GFP
EC50 (μM)CC50 (μM)SIEC50 (μM)CC50 (μM)SIEC50 (μM)CC50 (μM)SI
Chloroquine3.0 (± 1.1)58.1 (± 1.1)19.44.1 (± 1.0)>128>313.3 (± 1.2)>50>15
Chlorpromazine4.9 (± 1.2)21.3 (± 1.0)4.38.8 (± 1.0)24.3 (± 1.1)2.82.5 (± 1.0)23.5 (± 1.0)9.4
Loperamide4.8 (± 1.5)15.5 (± 1.0)3.25.9 (± 1.1)53.8 (± 1.7)9.14.0 (± 1.1)25.9 (± 1.0)6.0
Lopinavir8.0 (± 1.5)24.4 (± 1.0)3.117.1 (± 1.0)>32>26.6 (± 1.1)37.6 (± 1.3)5.7
  • a EC50 and CC50 values are means (± SD) from a representative experiment (n = 4) that was repeated at least twice. Antiviral activity was determined in Huh7 cells (for MERS-CoV and HCoV-229E-GFP) or VeroE6 cells (for SARS-CoV). See the text for more details.