TABLE 1

Difference in the use of penicillins (expressed as DDD/TID) in autumn, winter, and spring versus summer before the OTC restrictionsa

Penicillin(s)DDD/TID (95% CI)
MexicoBrazil
WinterSpringAutumnWinterSpringAutumn
All penicillins1.039** (0.808–1.271)0.060 (−0.210–0.33)1.226** (0.981–1.472)0.880 (−0.135–1.896)0.265 (−0.462–0.993)0.809* (0.017–1.601)
Amoxicillin0.472** (0.303–0.641)0.021 (−0.148–0.191)0.589** (0.456–0.721)0.629 (−0.106–1.363)0.184 (−0.344–0.713)0.615* (0.036–1.193)
Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid0.293** (0.200–0.386)0.050 (−0.029–0.129)0.352** (0.266–0.439)0.251 (−0.027–0.528)0.085 (−0.116–0.286)0.196 (−0.025–0.416)
Ampicillin0.255** (0.180–0.331)−0.004 (−0.070–0.063)0.259** (0.146–0.371)−0.001 (−0.012–0.011)−0.003 (−0.014–0.007)−0.003 (−0.013–0.008)
Other penicillins0.019 (−0.012–0.049)−0.007 (−0.039–0.025)0.027 (−0.011–0.064)0.002* (0.000–0.004)−0.001 (−0.002–0.001)0.001 (−0.001–0.003)
  • a DDD/TID, defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitant-days; *, significant at 5%; **, significant at 1%; 95% CI, robust 95% confidence interval.