TABLE 2

Changes in the difference in the use of penicillins (expressed as DDD/TID) between autumn, winter and spring versus summer after the OTC restrictions and changes in level and trend of usea

Country and penicillin(s)DDD/TID (95% CI)Trend
WinterSpringAutumnLevel
Mexico
    All penicillins−0.359** (−0.613 to −0.105)−0.032 (−0.309 to 0.245)−0.469* (−0.817 to −0.121)−0.938* (−1.825 to −0.051)0.027 (0.094 to 0.148)
    Amoxicillin−0.170 (−0.352 to 0.011)−0.009 (−0.180 to 0.162)−0.186* (−0.361 to −0.011)−0.441 (−0.889 to 0.008)0.020 (−0.042 to 0.082)
    Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid0.045 (−0.129 to 0.219)−0.052 (−0.139 to 0.035)−0.023 (−0.173 to 0.127)−0.001 (−0.371 to 0.369)0.027 (−0.029 to 0.083)
    Ampicillin−0.229** (−0.364 to −0.095)0.021 (−0.056 to 0.098)−0.247** (−0.398 to −0.096)−0.474** (−0.676 to −0.272)0.017 (−0.010 to 0.044)
    Other penicillins−0.005 (−0.036 to 0.027)0.008 (−0.024 to 0.040)−0.013 (−0.051 to 0.025)−0.022 (−0.164 to 0.120)0.023*(0.004 to 0.043)
Brazil
    All penicillins0.077 (−1.142 to 1.297)0.388 (−0.532 to 1.308)−0.000 (−1.009 to 1.008)−0.814 (−1.670 to −0.042)0.023 (−0.114 to 0.160)
    Amoxicillin−0.012 (−0.883 to 0.858)0.267 (−0.407 to 0.941)−0.088 (−0.808 to 0.631)−0.843* (−1.474 to −0.213)0.032 (−0.066 to 0.130)
    Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid0.085 (−0.252 to 0.421)0.118 (−0.117 to 0.352)0.086 (−0.198 to 0.370)0.147 (−0.519 to 0.224)0.034 (−0.023 to 0.091)
    Ampicillin0.004 (−0.021 to 0.029)0.000 (−0.031 to 0.032)0.002 (−0.025 to 0.029)−0.254 (−0.526 to 0.018)0.049* (0.011 to 0.086)
    Other penicillins0.001 (−0.003 to 0.005)0.003 (−0.001 to 0.006)−0.000 (−0.005 to 0.004)−0.230 (−0.502 to 0.042)0.046* (0.009 to 0.084)
  • a DDD/TID, defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitant-days; *, significant at 5%; **, significant at 1%; 95% CI, robust 95% confidence interval.