TABLE 1

Antiviral activity of selected compounds on the in vitro replication of EV-D68 strains

LineageStrainYear clinical specimen collectedEC50 (μM)a with:
PleconarilVapendavirPirodavirRupintrivirSG85EnviroximeFavipiravir
Cluster ACU70b20110.13 ± 0.061.4 ± 0.52.4 ± 0.30.0027 ± 0.00050.0080 ± 0.00090.27 ± 0.0497 ± 29
4311000670c20100.28 ± 0.21.0 ± 0.13.8 ± 1.50.0027 ± 0.00050.0072 ± 0.00070.33 ± 0.0988 ± 17
4311000742c20100.14 ± 0.021.8 ± 0.87.1 ± 1.00.0026 ± 0.00080.0080 ± 0.0030.45 ± 0.263 ± 27
4310901348c20090.37 ± 0.2>509.6 ± 2.00.0030 ± 0.00030.0074 ± 0.00080.20 ± 0.07101 ± 20
US/KY/14-18953c20140.16 ± 0.23.8 ± 0.95.5 ± 1.40.0024 ± 0.00030.0027 ± 0.0010.43 ± 0.278 ± 7
Cluster B4310900947c20090.42 ± 0.21.1 ± 0.32.7 ± 0.60.0029 ± 0.00020.0065 ± 0.0030.20 ± 0.0597 ± 12
4310902042c20090.83 ± 0.91.1 ± 0.33.9 ± 3.00.0020 ± 0.00050.0051 ± 0.0030.19 ± 0.04121 ± 31
US/IL/14-18952d20140.26 ± 0.21.3 ± 0.74.7 ± 4.20.0018 ± 0.00050.0032 ± 0.0010.20 ± 0.1>100
US/MO/14-18947d20140.39 ± 0.60.5 ± 0.33.1 ± 1.70.0019 ± 0.00070.0022 ± 0.00040.21 ± 0.07>100
Cluster C4310902284c20090.081 ± 0.031.2 ± 0.12.7 ± 1.00.0028 ± 0.00020.0045 ± 0.0020.19 ± 0.179 ± 14
  • a The antiviral activity of the compounds against 10 EV-D68 isolates was determined in HeLa Rh cells by a CPE reduction assay (multiplicity of infection, 0.001). Cell viability was measured with a colorimetric readout using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium/phenazine methosulfate (MTS/PMS) method. Data shown are means ± SD from at least three independent experiments.

  • b From Thailand (22).

  • c From The Netherlands (23).

  • d From the United States (24).