TABLE 1

Flanking regions and plasmid families associated with acquired AmpC and carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae

bla gene(s)Flanking region(s)aPlasmid size(s) or localization (kb)bRepliconMicroorganism(s) (no. of isolates)
blaACC-1ACC-1(B)64.5NK. pneumoniae (1); E. coli (1)
ACC-1(B)ChromosomalE. coli (1); Proteus mirabilis (1)
ACC-1(B)80UnidentifiedK. pneumoniae (1)
ACC-1(C)32.5UnidentifiedP. mirabilis (1)
ACC-1(D)48.5UnidentifiedK. pneumoniae (1)
blaACC-1 + blaFOX-3ACC-1(A) + FOX (A)64.5 + 80.5Unidentified + UE. coli (1)
blaCMY-2CMY-2(A)177.5 to 300.7A/CK. pneumoniae (2); P. mirabilis (1)
CMY-2(A)43.7 to 83.1I1Citrobacter koseri (1); E. coli (4)
CMY-2(A)69.3I1 + FIBE. coli (1)
CMY-2(A)48.5 to 83.1KE. coli (3); K. pneumoniae (1)
CMY-2(A)ChromosomalE. coli (1); Klebsiella oxytoca (1)
CMY-2(B)55.4KE. coli (1)
CMY-2(B)76.2I1E. coli (1)
CMY-2(C)145.5I1K. pneumoniae (1)
CMY-2(C)ChromosomalP. mirabilis (3); K. pneumoniae (1); Proteus penneri (1)
CMY-2(D)83.1 to 97.6I1E. coli (1); K. pneumoniae (1)
blaCMY-4CMY-2(A)105.1K + FIBE. coli (1)
CMY-2(A)ChromosomalE. coli (1)
CMY-2(B)80.8I1E. coli (1)
CMY-2(C)88.9I1K. pneumoniae (1)
blaCMY-7CMY-2(A)80.8I1E. coli (1)
blaCMY-27CMY-2(A)113.2I1E. coli (2)
blaCMY-43CMY-2(A)ChromosomalE. coli (1)
blaCMY-48CMY-2(B)ChromosomalE. coli (1)
blaCMY-54CMY-2(C)105.1K + FIBE. coli (1)
blaCMY-55CMY-2(A)282.9A/CE. coli (1)
blaCMY-56CMY-2(A)299.1A/CK. pneumoniae (1)
blaCMY-57CMY-2(C)97.0I1E. coli (1)
blaCMY-2 + blaDHA-1CMY-2(A) + DHA-1(G)Chromosomal + 218FIIAK. pneumoniae (1)
blaCMY-2 + blaVIM-1CMY-2(C) + VIM-1(B)Chromosomal + 48UnidentifiedP. mirabilis (1)
blaDHA-1DHA-1(A)72.8 to 87.3UnidentifiedC. koseri (1); E. coli (1); K. pneumoniae (2)
DHA-1(A)203.7A/CK. pneumoniae (1)
DHA-1(A)ChromosomalC. koseri (1); Enterobacter cloacae (1)
DHA-1(B)72.8UnidentifiedK. oxytoca (2)
DHA-1(B)77.6I1E. coli (1)
DHA-1(C)ChromosomalP. mirabilis (3)
DHA-1(D)72.8UnidentifiedK. oxytoca (1)
DHA-1(E)72.8UnidentifiedSalmonella spp. (1)
DHA-1(F)87.3UnidentifiedE. coli (1)
DHA-1(H)ChromosomalE. coli (1)
blaDHA-6DHA-1(G)87.3I1E. coli (1)
blaDHA-1 + blaVIM-1DHA-1(B) + VIM-1 (D) (In846)76.6 + chromosomalFIIAK. pneumoniae (1)
blaDHA-7 + blaVIM-1DHA-1(D) + VIM-1(E) (In847)310.4 + 48.5HI2 + unidentifiedE. cloacae (2)
blaFOX-3FOX(A)72.5UE. coli (1)
blaFOX-8FOX(A)ChromosomalE. coli (2)
blaIMP-22IMP-22(A)485.0UnidentifiedK. pneumoniae (2)
blaIMP-28IMP-28(A) (In767)ChromosomalK. oxytoca (1)
blaVIM-1VIM-1(A) (In488)48.0UnidentifiedK. oxytoca (1)
VIM-1(B) (In624)48.0 and 66.2UnidentifiedE. cloacae (2); K. oxytoca (2); K. pneumoniae (2)
VIM-1(C) (In846)48.0 and 72.5UK. pneumoniae (1); E. cloacae (1)
VIM-1(D) (In848)48.0UnidentifiedE. coli (1)
  • a The type of surrounding regions found for each bla gene is in parentheses (see Fig. 1 to 3 for more data).

  • b The plasmid size was determined after the hybridization procedure. Chromosomal means possible chromosomal localization of the gene.