TABLE 1

Distribution of metallo-β-lactamase variants among Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa isolates collected from 2012 to 2014

RegionCountryOrganismMBL variant (no.)
IMPNDMVIM
EuropeAustriaE. cloacaeVIM-1 (2)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (2)
BelgiumK. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (1)
P. aeruginosaVIM-1 (1)
VIM-2 (8)
Czech RepublicP. aeruginosaIMP-7 (6)VIM-2 (2)
FranceP. aeruginosaVIM-2 (1)
GermanyP. stuartiiVIM-1 (1)
P. aeruginosaIMP-19 (1)VIM-2 (3)
VIM-28 (2)
GreeceC. freundiiVIM-1 (1)
E. cloacaeVIM-1 (12)
E. coliVIM-1 (1)
K. pneumoniaeVIM-1 (13)
VIM-26 (1)
P. mirabilisVIM-1 (4)
P. stuartiiVIM-1 (3)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (24)
VIM-4 (2)
HungaryC. freundiiVIM-4 (1)
K. pneumoniaeVIM-4 (2)
S. marcescensVIM-4 (1)
P. aeruginosaVIM-4 (5)
VIM-43 (1)
ItalyC. freundiiVIM-1 (2)
E. coliVIM-1 (1)
K. pneumoniaeVIM-1 (1)
VIM-42 (1)
P. aeruginosaVIM-1 (5)
VIM-2 (1)
PolandP. aeruginosaVIM-2 (1)
PortugalP. aeruginosaVIM-2 (4)
VIM-44 (1)
RomaniaE. cloacaeNDM-1 (4)
K. oxytocaNDM-1 (1)
K. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (6)
S. marcescensNDM-1 (2)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (10)
VIM-4 (1)
RussiaK. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (3)
NDM-16 (2)
P. aeruginosaIMP-1 (1)VIM-2 (66)
SpainK. oxytocaVIM-1 (1)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (1)
TurkeyE. cloacaeVIM-31 (1)
K. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (1)
S. marcescensVIM-5 (1)
P. aeruginosaVIM-4 (1)
VIM-5 (1)
United KingdomK. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (1)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (1)
Asia-PacificAustraliaK. pneumoniaeIMP-4 (1)
P. stuartiiVIM-1 (1)
ChinabC. freundiiNDM-1 (1)
E. cloacaeIMP-1 (2)
IMP-8 (1)
E. coliNDM-1 (1)
K. oxytocaIMP-4 (3)a
K. pneumoniaeIMP-4 (2)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (1)
JapanK. pneumoniaeIMP-1 (2)
P. aeruginosaIMP-1 (1)
IMP-7 (1)
MalaysiaP. aeruginosaIMP-1 (1)VIM-6 (1)
PhilippinesC. freundiiNDM-7 (2)
E. asburiaeNDM-7 (1)
E. cloacaeIMP-4 (1)NDM-1 (4)
NDM-7 (1)
K. pneumoniaeIMP-4 (2)NDM-1 (8)
IMP-26 (4)NDM-7 (2)
P. mirabilisIMP-26 (1)NDM-1 (1)
P. aeruginosaIMP-1 (1)
IMP-26 (5)VIM-2 (21)
South KoreaP. aeruginosaIMP-6 (2)
TaiwanC. freundiiIMP-8 (3)
E. asburiaeIMP-8 (1)
E. cloacaeIMP-8 (1)
K. pneumoniaeIMP-8 (1)
S. marcescensIMP-47 (1)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (1)
ThailandE. asburiaeIMP-14 (1)
E. coliNDM-1 (1)
K. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (3)
P. aeruginosaIMP-1 (2)
IMP-7 (1)VIM-2 (3)
IMP-14 (1)VIM-5 (2)
IMP-48 (6)VIM-45 (2)
Middle East-AfricaKenyaE. asburiaeNDM-1 (1)
K. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (1)
NDM-5 (2)
P. aeruginosaNDM-1 (3)VIM-2 (2)
KuwaitE. cloacaeVIM-4 (2)
E. coliNDM-5 (2)
K. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (3)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (11)
VIM-4 (3)
NigeriaE. cloacaeNDM-1 (1)
K. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (9)
P. mirabilisVIM-5 (4)
P. rettgeriNDM-1 (1)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (3)
VIM-5 (2)
South AfricaK. oxytocaVIM-1 (2)
K. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (3)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (20)
Latin AmericaArgentinaP. aeruginosaIMP-16 (1)
BrazilP. aeruginosaIMP-49 (1)VIM-2 (2)
ChileP. aeruginosaVIM-2 (13)
ColombiaP. aeruginosaVIM-2 (8)
MexicoC. freundiiVIM-23 (1)
E. aerogenesVIM-23 (1)
E. cloacaeVIM-23 (2)
P. aeruginosaIMP-1 (1)
IMP-18 (2)VIM-2 (1)
VenezuelaK. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (1)
P. aeruginosaVIM-2 (28)
North AmericaUnited StatesC. freundiiVIM-32 (1)
K. pneumoniaeNDM-1 (2)
P. aeruginosaIMP-13 (1)VIM-2 (2)
  • a The full gene sequence was determined by whole-genome sequencing.

  • b No isolates were obtained from patients in mainland China in 2014 due to export restrictions.