TABLE 2

Chromosomal genetic changes after exposure to chlorhexidine

Strain and gene nameType of changeChangebMGH 78578 equivalent based on NCBI reference sequence NC_009648.1Function
M109
    wcaJSNPQ399STOPCPS biosynthesis glycosyltransferase
    yfiNSNPA173VKPN_RS15690Diguanylate cyclase
    smvRDeletion400-bp DelKPN_RS10110TetR family transcriptional regulator
NCTC 13439a
    mipASNPQ98STOPKPN_RS06390MltA-interacting protein
    rarASNPW37RKPN_RS15910AraC family transcriptional regulator
    smvRDeletionComplete DelKPN_RS10110TetR family transcriptional regulator
    narUDeletionComplete DelKPN_RS10115Nitrite extrusion protein 2
    narZDeletionComplete DelKPN_RS10120Nitrate reductase A subunit alpha
    narHDeletionComplete DelKPN_RS10125Nitrate reductase A subunit beta
    narJDeletionFirst 130 aa DelKPN_RS10130Nitrate reductase molybdenum cofactor assembly chaperone
M3
    phoPSNPE82KKPN_RS06075PhoP family transcriptional regulator
    ackASNPS274FKPN_RS14420Acetate kinase
    smvRDeletion of 5 bp after nucleotide 22Truncation of 72 aa (normally 191 aa)KPN_RS10110TetR family transcriptional regulator
    −cDeletion (G) after nucleotide 445Truncation of 174 aa (normally 184 aa)KPN_RS17785Isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase
NCTC 13443a
    sufDSNP (synonymous)KPN_RS11525Fe-S cluster assembly protein
    phoQSNPA20PKPN_RS06070Two-component sensor protein
    lptDSNPY625NKPN_RS00270LPS assembly outer membrane complex protein
    smvRSNPW125STOPKPN_RS10110TetR family transcriptional regulator
    −Insertion (T) after nucleotide 375Truncation of 125 aa (normally 235 aa)KPN_RS14015Membrane protein; putative permease
NCTC 13368
    acoKSNPE253ALuxR family transcriptional regulator
    rpsASNPV122FKPN_RS0505030S ribosome protein S1
    yfiO (bamD)SNPV27EKPN_RS15655Part of outer membrane protein complex
    phoPSNPY98CKPN_RS06075PhoP family transcriptional regulator
MGH 78578a
    −SNPG121SKPN_RS01550Phosphonate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein
    −SNPA276VKPN_RS116055-Methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate homocysteine methyltransferase
    mutSSNPT115PKPN_RS16580DNA mismatch repair protein
SNPR46CKPN_RS24340LuxR family transcriptional regulator
    surASNPL74PKPN_RS00265Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase
    phoQSNPL348QKPN_RS06070Two-component sensor protein
    −SNPN30SKPN_RS04685Aldose dehydrogenase
    −SNPN32SKPN_RS20410Transcription accessory protein
    −Insertion (A)In repeat region AAGCTAA
    comAInsertion (C) after nucleotide 122Truncation of 136 aa (normally 170 aa)KPN_RS08585Competence protein
    −Insertion (G) after nucleotide 131Truncation of 172 aa (normally 329 aa)KPN_RS10945Nitrate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein
    −Insertion (T) after nucleotide 4423Elongation of 5 aa (normally 1,490 aa)KPN_RS15800Hypothetical protein
    −Insertion (GG) after nucleotide 1920Truncation of 649 aa (normally 1,332 aa)KPN_RS25360Helicase
    nuoC-nuoDInsertion (GGG) after nucleotide 1382Extra glycineKPN_RS14365NADH-quinone oxidoreductase subunit C/D
    mipAInsertion (G) after nucleotide 195Truncation of 72 aa (normally 275 aa)KPN_RS06390MltA-interacting protein MipA
    nikEInsertion (C) after nucleotide 87Truncation of 81 aa (normally 263 aa)KPN_RS20815ATP-binding protein of nickel transport system
  • a There was evidence of plasmid loss in the strain following chlorhexidine adaptation.

  • b aa, amino acids; Del, deletion; STOP, stop codon.

  • c −, name not known.