TABLE 1

Patient demographic and clinical characteristicsa

CharacteristicUnmatched cohortMatched cohort
TZP-VAN (n = 3,605)FEP-VAN (n = 588)P valueTZP-VAN (n = 1,633)FEP-VAN (n = 578)P value
Mean ± SD age (yr)51.5 ± 16.049.4 ± 17.00.00649.7 ± 15.749.4 ± 170.7
No. (%) of male patients2,177 (60.4)326 (55.4)0.03905 (55.4)323 (55.9)0.9
Median (IQR) CCI3 (1–6)3 (1–5)0.23 (1–5)3 (1–5)1
Median (IQR) baseline CLCR (ml/min)97 (74–125)101 (77–132)0.01100 (77–126)101 (77–132)0.4
No. (%) of patients with:
    Hypotension946 (26.2)190 (32.3)0.002479 (29.3)186 (32.2)0.2
    Dehydration220 (6.1)36 (6.1)198 (6.0)34 (5.9)1
    Nephrotoxic drug exposure2,190 (60.7)349 (59.4)0.5939 (57.5)340 (58.8)0.6
    ACEI/ARB841 (23.3)139 (23.6)0.9370 (22.7)135 (23.4)0.8
No. (%) of patients treated with or exposed to:
    Acyclovir70 (1.9)33 (5.6)<0.000128 (1.7)29 (5.0)<0.0001
    An aminoglycoside473 (13.1)101 (17.2)0.01209 (12.8)98 (17.0)0.02
    Amphotericin B63 (1.7)16 (2.7)0.127 (1.7)15 (2.6)0.2
    A calcineurin inhibitor114 (3.2)19 (3.2)135 (2.1)19 (3.3)0.2
    Contrast dye1,632 (45.3)343 (58.3)<0.0001921 (56.4)336 (58.1)0.5
    Foscarnet9 (0.2)1 (0.2)13 (0.2)1 (0.2)1
    A loop diuretic1,121 (31.1)166 (28.2)0.2496 (30.4)160 (27.7)0.2
    An NSAID547 (15.2)88 (15.0)0.9242 (14.8)83 (14.4)0.8
    Sulfonamide66 (1.8)9 (1.5)0.727 (1.7)9 (1.6)1
    Tenofovir21 (0.6)4 (0.7)0.88 (0.5)4 (0.7)0.5
No. (%) of patients with the following no. of risk factors:0.00030.3
    01,132 (31.4)177 (30.1)531 (32.5)177 (30.6)
    11,163 (32.3)190 (32.3)528 (32.3)187 (32.4)
    2795 (22.1)113 (19.2)335 (20.5)113 (19.6)
    3379 (10.5)62 (10.5)160 (10.4)60 (10.4)
    ≥4136 (3.8)46 (7.8)79 (7.1)41 (7.1)
Median (IQR) VAN dose (mg/day)2,000 (1,500–2,500)2,083 (1,600–2,737)<0.00012,000 (1,500–2,500)2,083 (1,600–2,700)0.002
No. (%) of patients with a daily VAN dose of ≥4,000 mg39 (1.1)16 (2.7)0.00218 (1.1)16 (2.8)0.009
No. (%) of patients with the following maximum VAN trough concn (μg/ml):0.30.7
    <10438 (20.8)77 (21.1)213 (21.8)76 (21.1)
    10–15507 (24.1)100 (27.4)231 (23.7)98 (27.2)
    15–20521 (24.8)88 (24.1)239 (24.9)87 (24.2)
    >20639 (30.4)100 (27.4)293 (30.0)99 (27.5)
No. of days of antibiotic therapyc
    Total5 (4–8)5 (4–8)0.055 (4–8)5 (4–8)0.4
    Combination therapy3 (3–5)4 (3–6)0.0014 (3–5)4 (3–6)0.008
    FEP or TZP therapy5 (3–7)5 (3–7)0.85 (3–7)5 (3–7)0.2
    VAN therapy4 (3–6)4 (3–7)<0.00014 (3–6)4 (3–7)<0.0001
  • a ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CCI, Charlson comorbidity index; CLCR, creatinine clearance; FEP, cefepime; IQR, interquartile range; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; TZP, piperacillin-tazobactam; VAN, vancomycin.