Table 1.

Seventy-two nourseothricin-resistant E. faecium isolates investigated in this study

Isolate typeNo. of isolatesOriginGenotype (PCR)a
Animal and sewage
7Poultry manure vat(E), sat4, aadE-aphA, erm(B),cat
5Pig manure vat(E),sat4, aadE-aphA, erm(B)
2Poultry meat vat(E), sat4, aadE-aphA, erm(B)
4Sewage vat(E), sat4, aadE-aphA, erm(B)
Human
10Stool samples from outpatients vat(E) [8]/vat(D) [1]d, sat4, aadE-aphA, erm(B)
7Hospitalized patientsb vat(E) [3]/vat(D) [1]d,sat4, aadE-aphA, erm(B)
37Hospitalized patientsc vanA, sat4, aadE-aphA, erm(B)
  • a Gene names indicate a positive PCR product according to a resistance phenotype: aadE codes for streptomycin resistance, aphA codes for kanamycin resistance, cat codes for chloramphenicol resistance,erm(B) codes for macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, sat4 codes for streptothricin (nourseothricin) resistance, vanA codes for vancomycin resistance, andvat(D) and vat(E) codes for streptogramin A resistance. The number of positive isolates is given in brackets; if no number is indicated, all isolates were positive. Primers are given in the text or were according to reference 16.

  • b From stool samples and colonizations.

  • c 14 from stool samples, 23 from infections.

  • d Four isolates with an unknown genotype for streptogramin A resistance.