Table 1.

Gene targets of widely used antibiotics

Target category and gene product Antibiotic class
Protein synthesis
 30S ribosomal subunitAminoglycosides, tetracyclines
 50S ribosomal subunitMacrolides, chloramphenicol
 tRNAIle synthetaseMupirocin
 Elongation factor GFusidic acid
Nucleic acid synthesis
 DNA gyrase A subunit; topo-isomerase IVQuinolones
 DNA gyrase B subunitNovobiocin
 RNA polymerase beta subunitRifampin
 DNAMetronidazole
Cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis
 TranspeptidasesBeta-lactams
d-Ala-d-Ala ligase substrateGlycopeptides
Antimetabolites
 Dihydrofolate reductaseTrimethoprim
 Dihydropteroate synthesisSulfonamides
 Fatty acid synthesisIsoniazid