Table 2.

Efflux and inactivating genes

Resistance profileProtein nameGene includedGenes% HomologyPlasmidbGenBank no. or referenced
DNAAmino acid
ATP-binding transporters
 LincomycinCar(A) car(A) car(A)pOJ158 M80346
 ErythromycinMsr(A) msr(A) msr(A)9898pUL5054 X52085
pSR1 AF167161
 Streptogramin B msr(SA)pEP2104 57
msr(SA′)pMS97 AB013298
msr(B)pCH200 M81802
 OleandomycinOle(B) ole(B) ole(B)pALOR26E L36601
 OleandomycinOle(C) ole(C) ole(C) L06249
 SpiramycinSrm(B) srm(B) srm(B)pKC514 X63451
 TylosinTlr(C) tlr(C) tlr(C) M57437
 Streptogramin AVga(A) vga(A) vga pIP524 M90056
 Streptogramin AVga(B) vga(B) vga(B)pIP1633 U82085
Major facilitators
 LincomycinLmr(A) lmr(A) lmr(A)pLST21 X59926
 ErythromycinMef(A) mef(A) mef(A)9091p53-6 U70055
 Erythromycin mef(E)pAT15-5 U83667
 ErythromycinEre(A) ere(A) ere(A)pI1100, pAT63 M11277
 ErythromycinEre(B) ere(B) ere(B)9999pIP1527 A15097
ere(B)pAT72 X03988
 Streptogramin BVgb(A) vgb(A) vgb pIP524 M20129
 Streptogramin BVgb(B) vgb(B) vgb(B)pIP1714 AF015628
 LincomycinLnu(A)a lnu(A)c lin(A′)pIP856 J03947
 Lincomycin lin(A)pIP855 M14039
 LincomycinLnu(B)a lnu(B)c lin(B)pVMM25 AJ238249
 Streptogramin AVat(A) vat(A) vat pIP680 L07778
 Streptogramin AVat(B) vat(B) vat(B)pIP524 L38809
 Streptogramin AVat(C) vat(C) vat(C)pIP1714 AF015628
 Streptogramin AVat(D)a vat(D) sat(A)pAT15, pAT421 L12033
 Streptogramin AVat(E)a vat(E) sat(G) AF139725
 MacrolidesMph(A) mph(A) mph(A)9993–99pTZ3519 D16251
 Macrolides mph(K)pGE64 U36578
 MacrolidesMph(B) mph(B) mph(B)pTZ3721, pTZ3723 D85892
 MacrolidesMph(C) mph(C) mph(BM)100100pMS97Q9ZNK8
 Macrolides mph(C)pSR1 AF167161
  • a These are newly designated classes, proteins, and genes.

  • b The list of plasmids includes both recombinant and natural plasmids.

  • c New gene designation because thelin designation has been used for other genes. No genes use the lnu designation.

  • d Information provide by GenBank and references1-8, 14, 16, 17, 19, 23, 28, 30, 33, 34, 37-40, 42, 45,47-50, 54, 55, 60, 63, 64, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 83, 85, 87, 90, 93,94, 99, 105, 110.