Table 2.

Efflux and inactivating genes

Resistance profileProtein nameGene includedGenes% HomologyPlasmidbGenBank no. or referenced
DNAAmino acid
ATP-binding transporters
 LincomycinCar(A)car(A)car(A)pOJ158M80346
 ErythromycinMsr(A)msr(A)msr(A)9898pUL5054X52085
pSR1AF167161
 Streptogramin Bmsr(SA)pEP210457
msr(SA′)pMS97AB013298
msr(B)pCH200M81802
 OleandomycinOle(B)ole(B)ole(B)pALOR26EL36601
 OleandomycinOle(C)ole(C)ole(C)L06249
 SpiramycinSrm(B)srm(B)srm(B)pKC514X63451
 TylosinTlr(C)tlr(C)tlr(C)M57437
 Streptogramin AVga(A)vga(A)vgapIP524M90056
 Streptogramin AVga(B)vga(B)vga(B)pIP1633U82085
Major facilitators
 LincomycinLmr(A)lmr(A)lmr(A)pLST21X59926
 ErythromycinMef(A)mef(A)mef(A)9091p53-6U70055
 Erythromycinmef(E)pAT15-5U83667
Esterases
 ErythromycinEre(A)ere(A)ere(A)pI1100, pAT63M11277
 ErythromycinEre(B)ere(B)ere(B)9999pIP1527A15097
ere(B)pAT72X03988
Hydrolases
 Streptogramin BVgb(A)vgb(A)vgbpIP524M20129
 Streptogramin BVgb(B)vgb(B)vgb(B)pIP1714AF015628
Transferases
 LincomycinLnu(A)alnu(A)clin(A′)pIP856J03947
 Lincomycinlin(A)pIP855M14039
 LincomycinLnu(B)alnu(B)clin(B)pVMM25AJ238249
 Streptogramin AVat(A)vat(A)vatpIP680L07778
 Streptogramin AVat(B)vat(B)vat(B)pIP524L38809
 Streptogramin AVat(C)vat(C)vat(C)pIP1714AF015628
 Streptogramin AVat(D)avat(D)sat(A)pAT15, pAT421L12033
 Streptogramin AVat(E)avat(E)sat(G)AF139725
Phosphorylases
 MacrolidesMph(A)mph(A)mph(A)9993–99pTZ3519D16251
 Macrolidesmph(K)pGE64U36578
 MacrolidesMph(B)mph(B)mph(B)pTZ3721, pTZ3723D85892
 MacrolidesMph(C)mph(C)mph(BM)100100pMS97Q9ZNK8
 Macrolidesmph(C)pSR1AF167161
  • a These are newly designated classes, proteins, and genes.

  • b The list of plasmids includes both recombinant and natural plasmids.

  • c New gene designation because thelin designation has been used for other genes. No genes use the lnu designation.

  • d Information provide by GenBank and references1-8, 14, 16, 17, 19, 23, 28, 30, 33, 34, 37-40, 42, 45, 47-50, 54, 55, 60, 63, 64, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 83, 85, 87, 90, 93, 94, 99, 105, 110.