Table 3.

Macrolide resistance mechanisms found in some pathogens and their numbers of rRNA operons

OrganismMechanism (reference[s]a)No. of rRNA operonsReference(s) for rRNA operons
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae 23S RNA mutation1 157
Mycoplasma pneumoniae 23S RNA mutation1 55
Mycobacterium chelonae 23S RNA mutation1 146
Mycobacterium abscessus 23S RNA mutation1 146
Mycobacterium avium 23S RNA mutation1 84, 90
Mycobacterium intracellulare 23S RNA mutation1 13, 84,90
Propionibacterium avidum 23S RNA mutation1 111
Helicobacter pylori 23S RNA mutation2 17, 68, 133
Propionibacterium granulosum 23S RNA mutation2 111
Treponema pallidum 23S RNA mutation2 22
Propionibacterium acnes 23S RNA mutation3 111
Streptococcus pneumoniae 23S RNA mutation4 129; Tait-Kamradt et al., Abstr. ICMASKO V Meet.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae erm(149) NAb
Neisseria gonorrhoeae erm and efflux (61,104)4 14
Enterococcus erm(67)4–6 116,117
Lactobacillus reuteri erm(149)NA
Bacillus anthracis erm (149)NA
Bacteroides fragilis erm (149)NA
Staphylococcus erm and efflux (43)NA
Staphylococcus aureus erm(67)6 145
Streptococcus pneumoniae Ribosomal protein L4 (129; Tait-Kamradt et al., Abstr. ICMASKO V Meet.)4 129; Tait-Kamradt et al., Abstr. ICMASKO V Meet.
Streptococcus pneumoniae erm and efflux (73, 128)4 or 6 10, 53,129; Tait-Kamradt et al., Abstr. ICMASKO V Meet.
Streptococcus agalactiae erm and efflux (28,149)6 37
Streptococcus pyogenes erm and efflux (70,128)6 128
Clostridium perfringens erm(149)9 19
  • a The references for the rRNA mutations are given in Table 2.

  • b NA, not available (but data from another species of the same genus are given here or in Table 4).