Table 2.

23S rRNA mutations reported to confer macrolide resistance

E. coli 23S rRNA positionaOrganismbNucleotide(s)PhenotypecReference(s)
Wild typeMutant
754 Escherichia coli UAEryl rTell r 156
2057 Chlamydomonas reinhardtiichloroplastGAEryrLins 63
Escherichia coli GAEryr M16sLins SB s 47
Propionibacteria GAEryl rM16s 111
2057+ Escherichia coli G+GA+AEryrLinr 39
2032 Helicobacter pylori A+GG+AClrr AzmrEryr 64
2058 Brachyspira hyodysenteriae AG, UEryr TylrLinr 69
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplastAGEryrLinr 63
Escherichia coli AGEryrLinr 39, 143
AUMLSB r 120
Helicobacter pylori ACClrr 125
MacrLinr 94
MLSB r 148
Clar 34
AGClar 142
MacrLinp 94
MLSB p 148
Clar 34
AUMLSB r 148
Clar 34
Mycobacterium abscessus AGClrr 146
Mycobacterium avium AC, G, UClrr 90
Mycobacterium chelonae AC, GClrr 146
Mycobacterium intracellulare AC, G, UClrr 84
Mycobacterium kansasii AUClrr 18
Mycobacterium smegmatis AGClrr 113
Mycoplasma pneumoniae AGEryh rSpim r TylsLinh r 79
Propionibacteria AGMLSB r 111
Streptococcus pneumoniae AGMLSB r 129
Streptomyces ambofaciens AGMLSB r 98
Saccharomyces cerevisiaemitochondrionAGEryr 123
Treponema pallidum AGEryr L. V. Stamm and H. L. Bergen, Letter, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.44:806–807, 2000
2059 Helicobacter pylori ACMacr LinrSB s 148
Clrr 34
AGClrr 142
MacrLinr 94
Macr LinrSB s 148
Clar 34
Mycobacterium abscessus AC,GClrr 146
Mycobacterium chelonae AGClrr 146
Mycobacterium intracellulare ACClrrAzmr 84
Mycobacterium avium ACClrrAzmr 84
Mycobacterium smegmatis AGClrr 113
Mycoplasma pneumoniae AGErym rSpih r Tyll rLinm r 79
Streptococcus pneumoniae AGMacr 129
Propionibacteria AGMach rLinl r 111
2452 Sulfolobus acidocaldarius CUCbmrLinr 1
2611 Chlamydomonas moewusiichloroplastCGEryrSpil r 54
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplastCG, UEryrLinm r 63
Escherichia coli CUEryr SpisTyls Lins 139
Streptococcus pneumoniae CA, GMacrSB s 129
Saccharomyces cerevisiaemitochrondrionCGEryrSpir 122
Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrionCUErysSpir 122
  • a Nucleotide positions are numbered according to the corresponding positions in E. coli 23S rRNA. Consistent use of the E. coli system facilitates comparison between the different organisms and avoids discrepancies in some of the other notation systems, such as that for H. pylori (132).

  • b Pathogenic organisms are in boldface (theE. coli strains are nonvirulent laboratory strains).

  • c The phenotypes conferred to the different types of macrolide antibiotics are given when these were specified in the original articles (the lack of a notation does not imply sensitivity but merely indicates that no specific phenotype was reported). Similarly, in some reports the levels of resistance are arbitrarily categorized, and when this is the case these are recounted here (r, resistant; s, sensitive; h, high; m, medium; l, low). Phenotype designations: Lin, lincosamides; SB, streptogramin B group; MLSB, macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B. Other designations are given in Table 1.