Table 1.

Some of the major human phage therapy studies performed in Poland and the former Soviet Union

Reference(s)Infection(s)Etiologic agent(s)Comments
Babalova et al. (7)Bacterial dysentery Shigella Shigella phages were successfully used for prophylaxis of bacterial dysentery.
Bogovazova et al. (11)Infections of skin and nasal mucosa K. ozaenae, K. rhinoscleromatis, and K. pneumoniae Adapted phages were reported to be effective in treating Klebsiella infections in all of the 109 patients.
Cislo et al. (17)Suppurative skin infections Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, and E. coli Thirty-one patients having chronically infected skin ulcers were treated orally and locally with phages. The success rate was 74%.
Ioseliani et al. (22)Lung and pleural infections Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, E. coli, and Proteus Phages were successfully used together with antibiotics to treat lung and pleural infections in 45 patients.
Kochetkova et al. (25)Postoperative wound infections in cancer patients Staphylococcus andPseudomonas A total of 131 cancer patients having postsurgical wound infections participated in the study. Of these, 65 patients received phages and the rest received antibiotics. Phage treatment was successful in 82% of the cases, and antibiotic treatment was successful in 61% of the cases.
Kucharewicz-Krukowska and Slopek (27)Various infections Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas, and Proteus Immunogenicity of therapeutic phages was analyzed in 57 patients. The authors concluded that the phages' immunogenicity did not impede therapy.
Kwarcinski et al. (29)Recurrent subphrenic abscess E. coli Recurrent subphrenic abscess (after stomach resection) caused by an antibiotic-resistant strain of E. coli was successfully treated with phages.
Litvinova et al. (32)Intestinal dysbacteriosis E. coli andProteus Phages were successfully used together with bifidobacteria to treat antibiotic-associated dysbacteriosis in 500 low-birth-weight infants.
Meladze et al. (33)Lung and pleural infections Staphylococcus Phages were used to treat 223 patients having lung and pleural infections, and the results were compared to 117 cases where antibiotics were used. Full recovery was observed in 82% of the patients in the phage-treated group, as opposed to 64% of the patients in the antibiotic-treated group.
Miliutina and Vorotyntseva (35)Bacterial dysentery and salmonellosis Shigella and Salmonella The effectiveness of treating salmonellosis using phages and a combination of phages and antibiotics was examined. The combination of phages and antibiotics was reported to be effective in treating cases where antibiotics alone were ineffective.
Perepanova et al. (40)Inflammatory urologic diseases Staphylococcus, E. coli, and Proteus Adapted phages were used to treat acute and chronic urogenital inflammation in 46 patients. The efficacy of phage treatment was 92% (marked clinical improvements) and 84% (bacteriological clearance).
Sakandelidze and Meipariani (45)Peritonitis, osteomyelitis, lung abscesses, and postsurgical wound infections Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Proteus Phages administered subcutaneously or through surgical drains in 236 patients having antibiotic-resistant infections eliminated the infections in 92% of the patients.
Sakandelidze (46)Infectious allergoses (rhinitis, pharyngitis, dermatitis, and conjunctivitis) Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, E. coli, Proteus, enterococci, and P. aeruginosa A total of 1,380 patients having infectious allergoses were treated with phages (360 patients), antibiotics (404 patients), or a combination of phages and antibiotics (576 patients). Clinical improvement was observed in 86, 48 and 83% of the cases, respectively.
Slopek et al. (52–58)Gastrointestinal tract, skin, head, and neck infections Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, E. coli, Klebsiella, and Salmonella A total of 550 patients were treated with phages. The overall success rate of phage treatment was 92%.
Stroj et al. (67)Cerebrospinal meningitis K. pneumoniae Orally administered phages were used successfully to treat meningitis in a newborn (after antibiotic therapy failed).
Tolkacheva et al. (69)Bacterial dysentery E. coliand Proteus Phages were used together with bifidobacteria to treat bacterial dysentery in 59 immunosuppressed leukemia patients. The superiority of treatment with phage-bifidobacteria over antibiotics was reported.
Weber-Dabrowska et al. (74)Suppurative infections Staphylococcus and various gram-negative bacteriaOrally administered phages were used to successfully treat 56 patients, and the phages were found to reach the patients' blood and urine.
Zhukov-Verezhnikov et al. (77)Suppurative surgical infections Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, E. coli, and Proteus The superiority of adapted phages (phages selected against bacterial strains isolated from individual patients) over commercial phage preparations was reported in treating 60 patients having suppurative infections.