Table 1.

Specific changes in C. albicans gene expression in response to a 24-h treatment with 10 μM itraconazolea

GeneProduct or functionResponseb
Ergosterol biosynthesis-linked genes
 Homolog of S.c. ERG2 C-8 sterol isomerase+3.9
C.a. ERG9 Farnesyl-diphosphate famesyltransferase (squalene synthetase) (EC 2.5 1.21)+4.9
C.a. ERG25 C-4 methyl sterol oxidase+4.2
 Homolog of S.c. ERG26 C-3 sterol dehydrogenase (C-4 decarboxylase)+4.8
C.a. ERG11 Lanosterol 14 α-demethylase (EC 1.14.14.1)+12.5
 Homolog of S.c. ERG5 C-22 sterol desaturase (EC 1.14.14.-)+12
C.a. ERG3 C5,6-desaturase+12.4
 Homolog ofS.c. ERG4 C-24(28) sterol reductase+11.6
C.a. ERG6 Delta-24-sterol C-methyltransferase (EC2.1.1.41)+50.3
 Homolog of S.c. ERG10 Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.9)+10.9
 Homolog of S.c. IDI1 Isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase+9.2
 Homolog of S.c. HMGS 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA Synthase (EC 4.1.3.5)+13.7
C.a. ERG1 Squalene epoxidase (EC 1.14.99.7)+13.2
 Homolog of C. maltosa NCP1 NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (EC 1.6.2.4)+6.7
 Homolog of S.c. FEN2 Pantothenate symporter+5.1
 Homolog of S.c. CYB5 Cytochromeb 5 +4.5
 Homolog of S.c. CBR1 NADH-cytochrome b 5 reductase (EC1.6.2.2)+2.7
 Homolog of S.c. SAM2 S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 (EC2.5.1.6)+5.8
 Homolog of S.c. MET6 Homocysteine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.14)+2.6
 Homolog of S.c. COQ7 Required for derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes and ubiquinone biosynthesis+3.1
Other genes
 Cell wall maintenance
  C.a. CHT3 Chitinase+3.3
  Homolog of S.c. MNN4 Involved in mannosylphosphate transfer from GDP-mannose to N-linked oligosaccharides+5.1
  Homolog of S.c. CWH8 Involved in generation of the cell wall mannoprotein layer+3.2
 Protein synthesis
   RPS7A, RPL13, RPL30, RPL8B, RPL34B, RPS16, RPL18A, RPL7A, RPL15A, RPS5, RPS10B, RPS19A, SSM1B, RPL26B, RPL14B, RPS29A, RPS11A, ASC1, RPS17B, RPS20, RPL32, RPL9B, RPL27, RPS9B, RPS2, RPLA0, RPL5, RPS27B, RPL11A, RPL35A, RPA4, RPL16A, RPL8A, RPL17B, RPS26A, RPS21, RPS8A, RPS15 +2.5–+5.2
 Lipid, fatty acid metabolism
  C.a. AUR1 Phosphatidylinositol ceramide phosphoinositol transferase+4.6
  Homolog of S.c. FAA2 Long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase 2 (EC 6.2.1.3)+2.5
  Homolog of Borago officinalis Delta-6-desaturase+7.3
  Homolog ofS.c. CHO1 Phosphatidylserine synthase (EC 2.78.8)+5.8
  C.a. PLD1 Phospholipase D+2.9
  Homolog of S.c. DAK2 Dihydroxyacetone kinase (EC2.7.1.29)−2.8
  Homolog of S.c. TES1 Peroxisoml acyl-CoA thioesterase,−3.3
  Homolog of C. tropicalis FAOTLong-chain fatty alcohol oxidase−3.4
  Homolog of S.c. PLB1 Phospholipase B (EC 3.1.1.5)−3.5
  Homolog ofS.c. YAT1 Inner mitochondrial membrane camitine acetylatransferase (EC 2.3.1.7)−3.6
  Homolog of S.c. CAT2 Peroxisomal and mitochondrial camitine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.7)−3.8
  Homolog of S.c. PDR16 Involved in lipid biosynthesis and multidrug resistance, belongs to the SEC14 cytosolic factor family−4.6
 Cell stress
  Homolog of S.c. YNL234W Hemoprotein with similarity to mammalian globins+3.4
  Homolog of S.c. DDR48 DNA damage-responsive protein, induced by heat shock, DNA damage, or osmotic stress+2.5
  Homolog of S.c. TPS2 Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.12)−2.5
  Homolog of S.c. HSP104 Heat shock protein 104−3
  C.a. TPS1 Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.15)−3.3
  Homolog of S.c. TPS3 Component of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase–phosphatase complex, alternative third subunit−3.7
  Homolog ofS.c. RTS1 Serine-threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A), B′ regulatory subunit, involved in regulation of stress-related responses and the cell cycle−4.3
  Homolog of S.c. OSM1 Mitochondrial soluble fumarate reductase involved in osmotic regulation−4.5
 Transport
  Vesicular transport
   C.a. SEC14 Phosphatidylinositol-hosphatidylcholine transfer protein required for transport of secretory proteins from Golgi complex+3.3
   Homolog of S.c. GYP1 GTPase-activating protein+2.7
   Homolog ofS.c. SEC7 Component of nonclathrin vesicle coat required for protein trafficking within Golgi complex−3.3
  Small molecule transport
   C.a. CDR4 Similar to multidrug resistance proteins, member of the ABC superfamily−2.6
   Homolog of S.c. PHO84 Inorganic phosphate transporter Pho84+5.7
   Homolog of S.c. YMR162C Member of the P-type ATPase superfamily of cation-translocating, primary active membrane transporters+4.1
   Homolog of S.c. YOR378W Belongs to family of the multidrug resistance permeases of MFS+2.9
   C.a. CTR1 High-affinity copper transporter−2.5
   Homolog of S.c. YHR032W Member of the multiple antimicrobiotic resistance family of secondary active membrane transporters−2.6
   Homolog of S.c. YPR128C Peroxisomal protein, member of the mitochondrial carrier family of secondary active membrane transporters−2.6
   Homolog of S.c. SSY1 Amino acid permease−2.7
   Homolog ofS.c. PXA2 Peroxisomal long-chain fatty acid import protein 1 (peroxisomal ABC transporter 2)−3.2
   Homolog ofS.c. PUT4 Proline permease−3.7
   Homolog ofS.c. YOL075C Member of the ABC superfamily of ATP-driven active membrane transporters−4.8
  Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport
   Homolog of S.c. NUP2 Nucleoporin+2.9
   Homolog of human CNT2 Na-dependent and purine selective transporter+2.7
 Amino acid metabolism
  Homolog of S.c. UGA1 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.19)−25.6
  Homolog of S.c. SAH1 S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (EC 3.3.1.1)+3.9
  C.a. GLY1 Low-specificity threonine aldolase (EC 4.1.2.5)+2.9
  C.a. THR1 Homoserine kinase (EC 2.7.1.39)+2.7
  Homolog ofS.c. PDX3 Pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) phosphate oxidase (EC1.4.3.5)−2.5
  Homolog of S.c. HIS2 Histidinol-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.15)−2.6
  Homolog of S.c. GCV2 Subunit of glycine decarboxylase complex (EC 1.4.4.2) functions in the glycine degradation pathway−3.4
 Carbohydrate metabolism
  C.a. AGM1 N-Acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase+2.9
  C.a. TKL1 Transketolase (EC 2.2.1.1)−2.7
  Homolog of S.c. ARA1 Subunit of NADP+-dependent d-arabinose dehydrogenase−4
 Energy generation
  Homolog of S.c. CBP4 Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase assembly factor+2.6
  C.a. AOX2 Alternative oxidase (salicythydroxamic acid-sensitive terminal oxidase)−2.5
  Homolog of C. pelliculosa CYB2 l-Lactate + cytochrome coxidoreductase (EC 1.1.2.3)−3.6
 Cell polarity and cell structure
  C.a. CDC42 Cell division control protein 42 homolog+2.7
  Homolog of S.c. LAS1 Involved in bud formation and cell morphogenesis+2.6
  Homolog of S.c. RAX1 Involved in determination of budding pattern+2.9
 Cell cycle control
  Homolog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe   CDC4 EF-hand protein involved in cell division+2.5
  Homolog of S.c. CDC48 Required for homotypic membrane fusion and for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis−2.5
  Homolog of S.c. BUB3 Checkpoint protein required for cell cycle arrest in response to loss of microtubule function−4.3
 Signal transduction and mating response
  Homolog of S. pombe RCD1 Required for induction of conjugation by regulating ste11 + transcription in response to nitrogen starvation+4.1
  Homolog ofS.c. MDG1 Involved in signal transduction and mating response−2.5
 Meiosis (in sexual yeasts)   Homolog of S.c. NDT80   Transcriptional activator of genes required meiotic division (B-type cyclins) and gamete formation (SPS1)  +2.9
 Mitosis
  Homolog of S. pombe SPG1 Inducer of septum formation through the Cdc7p kinase+3.7
  Homolog of S.c. CDC31 Cell division control protein 31, involved in first phase of spindle pole body duplication+3.5
 Chromatin and chromosome structures
  Homolog of S.c. HAT1 Histone acetyltransferase (EC 1.48)−2.6
  Homolog of S.c. TBF1 TTAGGG repeat-binding factor 1−4.6
 DNA repair and DNA synthesis
  Homolog of S.c. MSH1 Mitochondrial DNA repair+4.1
  Homolog ofS. pombe CRB3 Damage and replication checkpoint control protein+2.9
  Homolog of S.c. MCM2 Component of the prereplication complex initiating DNA replication at ARS sequences+2.7
  Homolog of S.c. DPB2 DNA polymerase epsilon subunit B−2.7
  Homolog of S.c. RAD26 Involved in transcription-coupled DNA repair−2.8
 Nucleotide metabolism
  C.a. IMH3 Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (EC1.1.1.205)+3.1
  C.a. TMP1 Thymidylate synthase (EC 2.1.1.45)−3
  Homolog of ratMMSDH Methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC1.2.1.27)−7.1
 Transcription
  Homolog of S.c. RPC10 Shared subunit of RNA polymerases I, II, and III−2.5
  Homolog of S.c. HIR2 Histone transcription regulator 2−2.5
  Homolog of S.c. TYE7 Transcription factor−2.7
  C.a. CTA1-2 Possible transcription factor−2.7
  Homolog of S.c. NIP7 Nucleolar protein required for efficient 60S fibosome subunit biogenesis+2.6
  Homolog of S.c. SEN2 tRNA-splicing endonuclease subunit (EC 3.1.27.9)+2.5
  Homolog of S. pombe RNH1 RNase H+2.5
  Homolog of S.c. IFH1 Involved in regulation of rRNA expression+2.5
  Homolog of S.c. YER146W Required for maintenance of normal U6 Sn RNA levels−3
  Homolog of S.c. SMM1 High-copy suppressor of mutations in mitochondrial tRNA (asp) gene−2.6
  Homolog of S.c. RNA15 Component of pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation factor I−2.5
 Protein modification and protein   degradation
  Homolog of S.c. UBC7 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (EC 6.3.2.19)+2.7
  Homolog of S.c. DPH5 Diphthine synthase (EC2.1.1.98)+2.6
  Homolog of S.c. SPC2 Component of the signal peptidase complex+2.5
  Homolog of S.c. YIM1 Mitochondrial inner membrane protease−3.6
 Other
  Homolog of S.c. BIO2 Biotin synthetase (EC 2.8.1.6)−6.7
  Homolog ofS.c. BIO3 Adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.62)−3.1
  Homolog of S.c. PHO13 4-Nitrophenylphosphatase−3.6
  Homolog ofS.c. FPR4 Nucleolar peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase−2.9
  Homolog of C. boidinii FDH Formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2)−3.8
  Homolog of S.c. NIT2 Nitrilase−3.5
  C.a. ALK8 Cytochrome P450, may be involved in multidrug resistance−2.9
  Homolog of S.c. STR2 Cystathionine gamma-synthase, part of the C-3 to C-4 transsulfurylation pathway (EC 4.2.99.9)−2.8
  Homolog ofS.c. PSP1 High-copy-number suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in Cdc17p DNA polymerase alpha−2.5
 Unknown ( n = 143 )
  82 genes of unknown function+2.5–37.7
  61 genes of unknown function−2.5–5.6
  • a Abbreviations: C.a.,C. albicans; S.c., S. cerevisiae; CoA, coenzyme A; ARS, autonomously replicating sequence.

  • b Responses are expressed as the fold change relative to the value for the nontreated control strain from one representative experiment. Only those genes whose expression changed 2.5-fold or more are shown. Genes induced by treatment have a positive numerical value, while those that were repressed have a negative value. The responses shown are averages for two or more datum points.