Table 1.

Specific changes in C. albicans gene expression in response to a 24-h treatment with 10 μM itraconazolea

GeneProduct or functionResponseb
Ergosterol biosynthesis-linked genes
 Homolog of S.c. ERG2C-8 sterol isomerase+3.9
C.a. ERG9Farnesyl-diphosphate famesyltransferase (squalene synthetase) (EC 2.5 1.21)+4.9
C.a. ERG25C-4 methyl sterol oxidase+4.2
 Homolog of S.c. ERG26C-3 sterol dehydrogenase (C-4 decarboxylase)+4.8
C.a. ERG11Lanosterol 14 α-demethylase (EC 1.14.14.1)+12.5
 Homolog of S.c. ERG5C-22 sterol desaturase (EC 1.14.14.-)+12
C.a. ERG3C5,6-desaturase+12.4
 Homolog ofS.c. ERG4C-24(28) sterol reductase+11.6
C.a. ERG6Delta-24-sterol C-methyltransferase (EC2.1.1.41)+50.3
 Homolog of S.c. ERG10Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.9)+10.9
 Homolog of S.c. IDI1Isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase+9.2
 Homolog of S.c. HMGS3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA Synthase (EC 4.1.3.5)+13.7
C.a. ERG1Squalene epoxidase (EC 1.14.99.7)+13.2
 Homolog of C. maltosa NCP1NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (EC 1.6.2.4)+6.7
 Homolog of S.c. FEN2Pantothenate symporter+5.1
 Homolog of S.c. CYB5Cytochromeb5+4.5
 Homolog of S.c. CBR1NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (EC1.6.2.2)+2.7
 Homolog of S.c. SAM2S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 (EC2.5.1.6)+5.8
 Homolog of S.c. MET6Homocysteine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.14)+2.6
 Homolog of S.c. COQ7Required for derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes and ubiquinone biosynthesis+3.1
Other genes
 Cell wall maintenance
  C.a. CHT3Chitinase+3.3
  Homolog of S.c. MNN4Involved in mannosylphosphate transfer from GDP-mannose to N-linked oligosaccharides+5.1
  Homolog of S.c. CWH8Involved in generation of the cell wall mannoprotein layer+3.2
 Protein synthesis
   RPS7A, RPL13, RPL30, RPL8B, RPL34B, RPS16, RPL18A, RPL7A, RPL15A, RPS5, RPS10B, RPS19A, SSM1B, RPL26B, RPL14B, RPS29A, RPS11A, ASC1, RPS17B, RPS20, RPL32, RPL9B, RPL27, RPS9B, RPS2, RPLA0, RPL5, RPS27B, RPL11A, RPL35A, RPA4, RPL16A, RPL8A, RPL17B, RPS26A, RPS21, RPS8A, RPS15+2.5–+5.2
 Lipid, fatty acid metabolism
  C.a. AUR1Phosphatidylinositol ceramide phosphoinositol transferase+4.6
  Homolog of S.c. FAA2Long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase 2 (EC 6.2.1.3)+2.5
  Homolog of Borago officinalisDelta-6-desaturase+7.3
  Homolog ofS.c. CHO1Phosphatidylserine synthase (EC 2.78.8)+5.8
  C.a. PLD1Phospholipase D+2.9
  Homolog of S.c. DAK2Dihydroxyacetone kinase (EC2.7.1.29)−2.8
  Homolog of S.c. TES1Peroxisoml acyl-CoA thioesterase,−3.3
  Homolog of C. tropicalis FAOTLong-chain fatty alcohol oxidase−3.4
  Homolog of S.c. PLB1Phospholipase B (EC 3.1.1.5)−3.5
  Homolog ofS.c. YAT1Inner mitochondrial membrane camitine acetylatransferase (EC 2.3.1.7)−3.6
  Homolog of S.c. CAT2Peroxisomal and mitochondrial camitine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.7)−3.8
  Homolog of S.c. PDR16Involved in lipid biosynthesis and multidrug resistance, belongs to the SEC14 cytosolic factor family−4.6
 Cell stress
  Homolog of S.c. YNL234WHemoprotein with similarity to mammalian globins+3.4
  Homolog of S.c. DDR48DNA damage-responsive protein, induced by heat shock, DNA damage, or osmotic stress+2.5
  Homolog of S.c. TPS2Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.12)−2.5
  Homolog of S.c. HSP104Heat shock protein 104−3
  C.a. TPS1Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.15)−3.3
  Homolog of S.c. TPS3Component of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase–phosphatase complex, alternative third subunit−3.7
  Homolog ofS.c. RTS1Serine-threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A), B′ regulatory subunit, involved in regulation of stress-related responses and the cell cycle−4.3
  Homolog of S.c. OSM1Mitochondrial soluble fumarate reductase involved in osmotic regulation−4.5
 Transport
  Vesicular transport
   C.a. SEC14Phosphatidylinositol-hosphatidylcholine transfer protein required for transport of secretory proteins from Golgi complex+3.3
   Homolog of S.c. GYP1GTPase-activating protein+2.7
   Homolog ofS.c. SEC7Component of nonclathrin vesicle coat required for protein trafficking within Golgi complex−3.3
  Small molecule transport
   C.a. CDR4Similar to multidrug resistance proteins, member of the ABC superfamily−2.6
   Homolog of S.c. PHO84Inorganic phosphate transporter Pho84+5.7
   Homolog of S.c. YMR162CMember of the P-type ATPase superfamily of cation-translocating, primary active membrane transporters+4.1
   Homolog of S.c. YOR378WBelongs to family of the multidrug resistance permeases of MFS+2.9
   C.a. CTR1High-affinity copper transporter−2.5
   Homolog of S.c. YHR032WMember of the multiple antimicrobiotic resistance family of secondary active membrane transporters−2.6
   Homolog of S.c. YPR128CPeroxisomal protein, member of the mitochondrial carrier family of secondary active membrane transporters−2.6
   Homolog of S.c. SSY1Amino acid permease−2.7
   Homolog ofS.c. PXA2Peroxisomal long-chain fatty acid import protein 1 (peroxisomal ABC transporter 2)−3.2
   Homolog ofS.c. PUT4Proline permease−3.7
   Homolog ofS.c. YOL075CMember of the ABC superfamily of ATP-driven active membrane transporters−4.8
  Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport
   Homolog of S.c. NUP2Nucleoporin+2.9
   Homolog of human CNT2Na-dependent and purine selective transporter+2.7
 Amino acid metabolism
  Homolog of S.c. UGA14-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.19)−25.6
  Homolog of S.c. SAH1S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (EC 3.3.1.1)+3.9
  C.a. GLY1Low-specificity threonine aldolase (EC 4.1.2.5)+2.9
  C.a. THR1Homoserine kinase (EC 2.7.1.39)+2.7
  Homolog ofS.c. PDX3Pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) phosphate oxidase (EC1.4.3.5)−2.5
  Homolog of S.c. HIS2Histidinol-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.15)−2.6
  Homolog of S.c. GCV2Subunit of glycine decarboxylase complex (EC 1.4.4.2) functions in the glycine degradation pathway−3.4
 Carbohydrate metabolism
  C.a. AGM1N-Acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase+2.9
  C.a. TKL1Transketolase (EC 2.2.1.1)−2.7
  Homolog of S.c. ARA1Subunit of NADP+-dependent d-arabinose dehydrogenase−4
 Energy generation
  Homolog of S.c. CBP4Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase assembly factor+2.6
  C.a. AOX2Alternative oxidase (salicythydroxamic acid-sensitive terminal oxidase)−2.5
  Homolog of C. pelliculosa CYB2l-Lactate + cytochrome coxidoreductase (EC 1.1.2.3)−3.6
 Cell polarity and cell structure
  C.a. CDC42Cell division control protein 42 homolog+2.7
  Homolog of S.c. LAS1Involved in bud formation and cell morphogenesis+2.6
  Homolog of S.c. RAX1Involved in determination of budding pattern+2.9
 Cell cycle control
  Homolog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe   CDC4EF-hand protein involved in cell division+2.5
  Homolog of S.c. CDC48Required for homotypic membrane fusion and for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis−2.5
  Homolog of S.c. BUB3Checkpoint protein required for cell cycle arrest in response to loss of microtubule function−4.3
 Signal transduction and mating response
  Homolog of S. pombe RCD1Required for induction of conjugation by regulating ste11+ transcription in response to nitrogen starvation+4.1
  Homolog ofS.c. MDG1Involved in signal transduction and mating response−2.5
 Meiosis (in sexual yeasts)   Homolog of S.c. NDT80  Transcriptional activator of genes required meiotic division (B-type cyclins) and gamete formation (SPS1)  +2.9
 Mitosis
  Homolog of S. pombe SPG1Inducer of septum formation through the Cdc7p kinase+3.7
  Homolog of S.c. CDC31Cell division control protein 31, involved in first phase of spindle pole body duplication+3.5
 Chromatin and chromosome structures
  Homolog of S.c. HAT1Histone acetyltransferase (EC 1.48)−2.6
  Homolog of S.c. TBF1TTAGGG repeat-binding factor 1−4.6
 DNA repair and DNA synthesis
  Homolog of S.c. MSH1Mitochondrial DNA repair+4.1
  Homolog ofS. pombe CRB3Damage and replication checkpoint control protein+2.9
  Homolog of S.c. MCM2Component of the prereplication complex initiating DNA replication at ARS sequences+2.7
  Homolog of S.c. DPB2DNA polymerase epsilon subunit B−2.7
  Homolog of S.c. RAD26Involved in transcription-coupled DNA repair−2.8
 Nucleotide metabolism
  C.a. IMH3Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (EC1.1.1.205)+3.1
  C.a. TMP1Thymidylate synthase (EC 2.1.1.45)−3
  Homolog of ratMMSDHMethylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC1.2.1.27)−7.1
 Transcription
  Homolog of S.c. RPC10Shared subunit of RNA polymerases I, II, and III−2.5
  Homolog of S.c. HIR2Histone transcription regulator 2−2.5
  Homolog of S.c. TYE7Transcription factor−2.7
  C.a. CTA1-2Possible transcription factor−2.7
  Homolog of S.c. NIP7Nucleolar protein required for efficient 60S fibosome subunit biogenesis+2.6
  Homolog of S.c. SEN2tRNA-splicing endonuclease subunit (EC 3.1.27.9)+2.5
  Homolog of S. pombe RNH1RNase H+2.5
  Homolog of S.c. IFH1Involved in regulation of rRNA expression+2.5
  Homolog of S.c. YER146WRequired for maintenance of normal U6 Sn RNA levels−3
  Homolog of S.c. SMM1High-copy suppressor of mutations in mitochondrial tRNA (asp) gene−2.6
  Homolog of S.c. RNA15Component of pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation factor I−2.5
 Protein modification and protein   degradation
  Homolog of S.c. UBC7Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (EC 6.3.2.19)+2.7
  Homolog of S.c. DPH5Diphthine synthase (EC2.1.1.98)+2.6
  Homolog of S.c. SPC2Component of the signal peptidase complex+2.5
  Homolog of S.c. YIM1Mitochondrial inner membrane protease−3.6
 Other
  Homolog of S.c. BIO2Biotin synthetase (EC 2.8.1.6)−6.7
  Homolog ofS.c. BIO3Adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.62)−3.1
  Homolog of S.c. PHO134-Nitrophenylphosphatase−3.6
  Homolog ofS.c. FPR4Nucleolar peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase−2.9
  Homolog of C. boidinii FDHFormate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2)−3.8
  Homolog of S.c. NIT2Nitrilase−3.5
  C.a. ALK8Cytochrome P450, may be involved in multidrug resistance−2.9
  Homolog of S.c. STR2Cystathionine gamma-synthase, part of the C-3 to C-4 transsulfurylation pathway (EC 4.2.99.9)−2.8
  Homolog ofS.c. PSP1High-copy-number suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in Cdc17p DNA polymerase alpha−2.5
 Unknown ( n = 143 )
  82 genes of unknown function+2.5–37.7
  61 genes of unknown function−2.5–5.6
  • a Abbreviations: C.a.,C. albicans; S.c., S. cerevisiae; CoA, coenzyme A; ARS, autonomously replicating sequence.

  • b Responses are expressed as the fold change relative to the value for the nontreated control strain from one representative experiment. Only those genes whose expression changed 2.5-fold or more are shown. Genes induced by treatment have a positive numerical value, while those that were repressed have a negative value. The responses shown are averages for two or more datum points.